Dementia Prevention and Recovery

Research & Studies

Blood-brain barrier damage in vascular dementia

 

“Increasing evidence indicates that dysfunction of the BBB function may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of vascular dementia. Higher serum BDNF levels may protect against future occurrence of dementia and AD. Our findings suggest a role for BDNF in the biology and possibly in the prevention of dementia and AD.”

 

Ueno, M., Chiba, Y., Matsumoto, K., Murakami, R., Fujihara, R., Kawauchi, M., . . . Nakagawa, T. (2016). Blood-brain barrier damage in vascular dementia. Neuropathology, 36(2), 115-124. doi: 10.1111/neup.12262

 

Hydrogen gas ameliorates oxidative stress in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

 

“Hydrogen gas significantly alleviated brain edema and blood–brain barrier disruption, reduced apoptosis, and improved neurologic function at 24 hrs but not 72 hrs after subarachnoid hemorrhage. These effects were associated with the amelioration of oxidative injury of lipid, protein, and DNA. Hydrogen gas could exert its neuroprotective effect against early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage by its antioxidative activity.”

Zhan, Y., Chen, C., Suzuki, H., Hu, Q., Zhi, X., & Zhang, J. H. (2012). Hydrogen gas ameliorates oxidative stress in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats. Critical Care Medicine, 40(4), 1291-1296. doi: 10.1097/ccm.0b013e31823da96d

 

Oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases

 

“Accumulating data suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, and that antioxidant administration may be useful in the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.”

 

Chen, X., Guo, C., & Kong, J. (2012). Oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. Neural Regeneration Research, 7(5), 376-385. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2012.05.009

 

Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals

“Hydrogen selectively reduces the hydroxyl radical, the most toxic free radical, and effectively protects cells. It does not react with free radicals that have physiological benefits, making it an incredibly effective therapy to neutralize acute oxidative stress.”

 

Ohsawa, I., Ishikawa, M., Takahashi, K., Watanabe, M., Nishimaki, K., Yamagata, K., . . . Ohta, S. (2007). Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Nature Medicine, 13(6), 688-694. doi: 10.1038/nm1577

 

Oxidative stress and neurodegenerative disease: A review of upstream and downstream antioxidant therapeutic options

 

“Though oxygen is imperative in for life, imbalanced metabolism and excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation end into a range of disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, aging and many other neural disorders. Toxicity of free radicals contributes to proteins and DNA injury, inflammation, tissue damage, and subsequent cellular apoptosis. Antioxidants are now being looked upon as persuasive therapeutic against solemn neural loss, as they have capability to combat neutralizing free radicals.”

 

Uttara, B., Singh, A. V., Zamboni, P., & Mahajan, R. T. (2009). Oxidative stress and neurodegenerative disease: A review of upstream and downstream antioxidant therapeutic options. Current Neuropharmacology, 7(1), 65-74. doi: 10.2174/157015909787602823

 

Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: A review of clinical and experimental studies

“H2 is emerging as a novel and safe therapeutic antioxidant. It has selective antioxidant properties, giving it anti-inflammatory properties.”

 

Hong, Y., Chen, S., & Zhang, J. (2010). Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: A review of clinical and experimental studies. Journal of International Medical Research, 38(6), 1893-1903. doi: 10.1177/147323001003800602

 

Therapeutic approach to neurodegenerative diseases by medical gases: Focusing on redox signaling and related antioxidant enzymes

 

“Oxidative stress in the central nervous system is strongly associated with neuronal cell death in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Together with the fact that H2, and H2S themselves have the ability to react with ROS directly, we strongly suggest that these gases can buffer the ROS and in addition might prevent and/or protect the neurons from oxidative stress damages in neurodegenerative diseases.”

 

Fujita, K., Yamafuji, M., Nakabeppu, Y., & Noda, M. (2012). Therapeutic approach to neurodegenerative diseases by medical gases: Focusing on redox signaling and related antioxidant enzymes. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2012(324526), 1-9. doi: 10.1155/2012/324256

 

The role of oxidative stress in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson's disease

 

“Univariate analysis showed that SOD activity was significantly decreased in ALS and GSH-Px activity was decreased in PD. After adjusting for demographic parameters and enzyme cofactors, we could emphasize a compensatory increase of SOD activity in PD. Different antioxidant systems were not involved in the same way in ALS and PD, suggesting that oxidative stress may be a cause rather than a consequence of the neuronal death.”

 

Baillet, A., Chanteperdrix, V., Trocmé, C., Casez, P., Garrel, C., & Besson, G. (2010). The role of oxidative stress in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease. Neurochemical Research, 35(10), 1530-1537. doi: 10.1007/s11064-010-0212-5

 

Treatment with hydrogen-rich saline delays disease progression in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

 

“Treatment of mutant SOD1 G93A mice with HRS preserved mitochondrial function, marked by restored activities of Complex I and IV, reduced mitochondrial ROS formation and enhanced mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate synthesis. In conclusion, hydrogen molecule may be neuroprotective against ALS, possibly through abating oxidative and nitrosative stress and preserving mitochondrial function.”

 

Zhang, Y., Li, H., Yang, C., Fan, D., Guo, D., Hu, H., . . . Pan, S. (2015). Treatment with hydrogen-rich saline delays disease progression in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurochemical Research, 41(4), 770-778. doi: 10.1007/s11064-015-1750-7

 

Oxidative stress and antioxidant therapy in Parkinson's disease

 

“The loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease results in enhanced metabolism of dopamine, augmenting the formation of H2O2, thus leading to generation of highly neurotoxic hydroxyl radicals (OH.).  New approaches designed to attenuate the effects of oxidative stress and to provide neuroprotection of striatal dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease include enhancing the survival of neurons by giving brain-derived neurotrophic factors.”

 

Ebadi, M., Srinivasan, S. K., & Baxi, M. D. (1996). Oxidative stress and antioxidant therapy in Parkinson's disease. Progress in neurobiology, 48(1), 1-19. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8830346

 

Therapeutic effects of hydrogen in animal models of Parkinson's disease

 

“Hydrogen has an ability to reduce oxidative damage and ameliorate the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal pathway in two experimental animal models. Thus, it is strongly suggested that hydrogen might provide a great advantage to prevent or minimize the onset and progression of PD.”

 

Fujita, K., Nakabeppu, Y., & Noda, M. (2011). Therapeutic effects of hydrogen in animal models of Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's disease, 2011(307875), 1-9. doi: 10.4061/2011/307875

 

Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease

 

“Studies in humans and various animal models of PD reveal that mitochondrial dysfunction might be a defect that occurs early in PD pathogenesis and appears to be a widespread feature in both sporadic and monogenic forms of PD.”

 

Subramaniam, S. R., & Chesselet, M. (2013). Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease. Progress in Neurobiology, 106-107, 17-32. doi: 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2013.04.004

 

Recent progress toward hydrogen medicine: Potential of molecular hydrogen for preventative and therapeutic applications

“H2 prevented the decline of the mitochondrial membrane potential. This suggested that H2 protected mitochondria from OH. Along with this protective effect, H2 also prevented a decrease in the cellular level of ATP synthesized in mitochondria. The fact that H2 protected mitochondria and nuclear DNA provided evidence that H2 penetrated most membranes and diffused into organelles.”

 

Ohta, S. (2011). Recent progress toward hydrogen medicine: Potential of molecular hydrogen for preventative and therapeutic applications. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 17(22), 2241-2252. doi: 10.2174/138161211797052664

 

Molecular hydrogen is protective against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nigrostriatal degeneration in a rat model of Parkinson's disease

 

“Molecular hydrogen serves as an antioxidant that reduces hydroxyl radicals, but not the other reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. This study suggests that hydrogen water is likely able to retard the development and progression of Parkinson's disease.”

 

Yuan, F., Ito, M., Fujita, Y., Ito, M., Ichihara, M., Masuda, A., . . . Ohno, K. (2009). Molecular hydrogen is protective against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nigrostriatal degeneration in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease. Neuroscience Letters, 453(2), 81-85. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2009.02.016

 

Pilot study of H2 therapy in Parkinson's disease: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

 

“Oxidative stress is involved in the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent studies have confirmed that molecular hydrogen (H2) functions as a highly effective antioxidant in cultured cells and animal models. The results indicated that drinking H2-water was safe and well tolerated, and a significant improvement in total UPDRS scores for patients in the H2-water group was demonstrated.”

 

Yoritaka, A., Takanashi, M., Hirayama, M., Nakahara, T., Ohta, S., & Hattori, N. (2013). Pilot study of H2 therapy in Parkinson's disease: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Movement Disorders, 28(6), 836-839. doi: 10.1002/mds.25375

 

The role of oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disease

 

“It has been suggested that oxidative imbalance and resultant neuronal damage may play a critical role on the initiation and progression of Alzheimer’s disease…Oxidative stress has been considered as one of major pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Parkinson’s disease.”

 

Kim, G. H., Kim, J. E., Rhie, S. J., & Yoon, S. (2015). The role of oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. Experimental Neurobiology, 24(4), 325-340. doi: 10.5607/en.2015.24.4.325

 

Hydrogen in drinking water reduces dopaminergic neuronal loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson's disease

 

“Chronic oxidative stress causes neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). The results of this study indicated that low concentration of H2 in drinking water can reduce oxidative stress in the brain. Thus, drinking H2-containing water may be useful in daily life to prevent or minimize the risk of life style-related oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.”

 

Fujita, K., Seike, T., Yutsudo, N., Ohno, M., Yamada, H., Yamaguchi, H., . . . Noda, M. (2009). Hydrogen in drinking water reduces dopaminergic neuronal loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson's disease. PLOS ONE, 4(9). 1-10. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007247

 

Drinking hydrogen water and intermittent hydrogen gas exposure, but not lactulose or continuous hydrogen gas exposure, prevent 6-hydorxydopamine-induced Parkinson's disease in rats

 

“Lack of dose responses of hydrogen and the presence of favorable effects with hydrogen water and intermittent hydrogen gas suggest that signal modulating activities of hydrogen are likely to be instrumental in exerting a protective effect against PD.”

 

Ito, M., Hirayama, M., Yamai, K., Goto, S., Ito, M., Ichihara, M., & Ohno, K. (2012). Drinking hydrogen water and intermittent hydrogen gas exposure, but not lactulose or continuous hydrogen gas exposure, prevent 6-hydorxydopamine-induced Parkinson’s disease in rats. Medical Gas Research, 2(15), 1-7. doi: 10.1186/2045-9912-2-15

 

Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease

 

“Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibits extensive oxidative stress throughout the body, being detected peripherally as well as associated with the vulnerable regions of the brain affected in disease. Structurally and functionally damaged mitochondria, which are more proficient at producing reactive oxygen species but less so in ATP, are also an early and prominent feature of the disease.”

 

Wang, X., Wang, W., Li, L., Perry, G., Lee, H., & Zhu, X. (2014). Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1842(8), 1240-1247. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2013.10.015

 

Hydrogen-rich water attenuates amyloid β-induced cytotoxicity through upregulation of Sirt1-FoxO3a by stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase in SK-N-MC cells

 

“The accumulation of Aβ-induced ROS leads to increased mitochondrial dysfunction and triggers apoptotic cell death. Our results indicated that HRW directly counteracts oxidative damage by neutralizing excessive ROS, leading to the alleviation of Aβ-induced cell death. In addition, HRW also stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in a sirtuin 1 (Sirt1)-dependent pathway, which upregulates forkhead box protein O3a (FoxO3a) downstream antioxidant response and diminishes Aβ-induced mitochondrial potential loss and oxidative stress. Taken together, our findings suggest that HRW may have potential therapeutic value to inhibit Aβ-induced neurotoxicity.”

 

Lin, C., Huang, W., Li, H., Huang, C., Hsieh, S., Lai, C., & Lu, F. (2015). Hydrogen-rich water attenuates amyloid β-induced cytotoxicity through upregulation of Sirt1-FoxO3a by stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase in SK-N-MC cells. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 240, 12-21. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2015.07.013

 

Oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and stress signaling in Alzheimer's disease

 

“Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD).  In a variety of tissues, cumulative oxidative stress, disrupted mitochondrial respiration, and mitochondrial damage are associated with, and may indeed promote cell death and degeneration.”

 

Onyango, I., & Khan, S. (2006). Oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and stress signaling in Alzheimer’s disease. Current Alzheimer Research, 3(4), 339-349. doi: 10.2174/156720506778249489

 

Hydrogen-rich saline reduces oxidative stress and inflammation by inhibit of JNK and NF-κB activation in a rat model of amyloid-beta-induced Alzheimer's disease

 

“After Aβ1-42 injection, the level of IL-1β, 8-OH-dG, JNK and NF-κB all increased in brain tissues, while hydrogen-rich saline treatment decreased the level of IL-1β, 8-OH-dG and the activation of JNK and NF-κB. In conclusion, hydrogen-rich saline prevented Aβ-induced neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, possibly by attenuation of activation of c-Jun NH₂-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in this rat model.”

 

Wang, C., Li, J., Liu, Q., Yang, R., Zhang, J. H., Cao, Y., & Sun, X. (2011). Hydrogen-rich saline reduces oxidative stress and inflammation by inhibit of JNK and NF-κB activation in a rat model of amyloid-beta-induced Alzheimer's disease. Neuroscience Letters, 491(2), 127-132. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2011.01.022

 

Interrelation of oxidative stress and inflammation in neurodegenerative disease: Role of TNF

 

“Neuroinflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction are common features of chronic neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. Both contribute to increased oxidative stress by excessive release of harmful reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), which further promote neuronal damage and subsequent inflammation resulting in a feed-forward loop of neurodegeneration. The cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a master regulator of the immune system, plays an important role in the propagation of inflammation due to the activation and recruitment of immune cells via its receptor TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1).”

 

Fisher, R., & Maier, O. (2015). Interrelation of oxidative stress and inflammation in neurodegenerative disease: Role of TNF. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2015(610813), 1-18. doi: 10.1155/2015/610813

 

Hydrogen-rich saline improves memory function in a rat model of amyloid-beta-induced Alzheimer's disease by reduction of oxidative stress

 

“After Abeta1-42 injection, the levels of MDA, IL-6, and TNF-alpha were increased in brain tissues and hydrogen-rich saline treatment suppressed MDA, IL-6, and TNF-alpha concentration. Hydrogen-rich saline treatment improved Morris Water Maze and enhanced LTP in hippocampus blocked by Abeta1-42. Furthermore, hydrogen-rich saline treatment also decreased the immunoreactivitiy of HNE and GFAP in hippocampus induced by Abeta1-42. In conclusion, hydrogen-rich saline prevented Abeta-induced neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, which may contribute to the improvement of memory dysfunction in this rat model.”

 

Li, J., Wang, C., Zhang, J. H., Cai, J., Cao, Y., & Sun, X. (2010). Hydrogen-rich saline improves memory function in a rat model of amyloid-beta-induced Alzheimer's disease by reduction of oxidative stress. Brain Research, 1328, 152-161. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2010.02.046

 

The neurotrophins and their role in Alzheimer’s disease

 

“Neurotrophic factors (NTF) are small, versatile proteins that maintain survival and function to specific neuronal populations.  Neurodegenerative dementias like Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are linked to deficits in axonal transport. Furthermore, they are also associated with imbalanced distribution and dysregulation of NTF. In particular, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).”

 

Allen, S. J., Watson, J. J., & Dawbam, D. (2011). The neurotrophins and their role in Alzheimer’s disease. Current Neuropharmacology, 9(4), 559-573. doi: 10.2174/157015911798376190

 

Hydrogen-rich saline injection into the subarachnoid cavity within 2 weeks promotes recovery after acute spinal cord injury

 

“The benefits of hydrogen-rich saline are not limited to the kidney; it also reduces acute spinal cord contusion injury, possibly by decreasing oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis while increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and activation of the mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium (mitoKATP) channel.”

 

Zhang, K., Wang, J., Zhang, Q., Zhu, K., Sun, J., Zhang, Z., & Sun, J. (2015). Hydrogen-rich saline injection into the subarachnoid cavity within 2 weeks promotes recovery after acute spinal cord injury. Neural Regeneration Research, 10(6), 958-964. doi: 10.4103/1673-5374.158361

 

Extracellular protein deposition correlates with glial activation and oxidative stress in Creutzfeldt-Jakob and Alzheimer's disease

 

“Quantitative analysis showed a correlation between the oxidative stress level and all glial cells. Further analysis showed that the number of microglia was related to the intensity of the prion depositions. Glial cells in the brain are thought to be the main producers of oxidative stress, resulting in neuronal death. Our results confirm that this close relationship exists in both AD and CJD. We also show that an increased number of glial cells and therefore possibly oxidative stress is associated with the disease progression.”

 

Everbroeck, B. V., Dobbeleir, I., Waele, M. D., Leenheir, E. D., Lübke, U., Martin, J., & Cras, P. (2004). Extracellular protein deposition correlates with glial activation and oxidative stress in Creutzfeldt-Jakob and Alzheimer’s disease. Acta Neuropathologica, 108(3), 194-200. doi: 10.1007/s00401-004-0879-2

 

Molecular hydrogen as a preventive and therapeutic medical gas: Initiation, development and potential of hydrogen medicine

 

“The numerous publications on its biological and medical benefits revealed that H2 reduces oxidative stress not only by direct reactions with strong oxidants, but also indirectly by regulating various gene expressions. Moreover, by regulating the gene expressions, H2 functions as an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic, and stimulates energy metabolism.”

 

Ohta, S. (2014). Molecular hydrogen as a preventive and therapeutic medical gas: Initiation, development and potential of hydrogen medicine. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 144(1), 1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2014.04.006

 

Oxidative stress and its clinical applications in dementia

 

“Alzheimer's disease (AD)- associated dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are the most common forms of dementia, in which oxidative stress is significantly involved. Oxidative stress mechanisms may have clinical applications, that is, providing information for potential biomarkers.  This feature supports an oxidative stress hypothesis for dementia.”

 

Mao, P. (2013). (2013). Oxidative stress and its clinical applications in dementia. Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases, 2013(319898), 1-15. doi: 10.1155/2013/319898

 

A review of hydrogen as a new medical therapy

 

“In the past few years many initial and subsequent clinical studies have demonstrated that hydrogen can act as an important physiological regulatory factor to cells and organs on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and other protective effects. So far several delivery methods applied in these studies have proved to be available and convenient, including inhalation, drinking hydrogen-dissolved water and injection with hydrogen-saturated saline.”

 

Zhang, J., Liu, C., Zhou, L., Qu, K., Wang, R., Tai, M., . . . Wang, Z. (2012). A Review of hydrogen as a new medical therapy. Hepatogastroenterology, 59(116), 1026-1032. doi: 10.5754/hge11883

 

Low brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in serum of Huntington's disease patients

 

“Severity of the illness, as assessed by the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) motor and cognitive scores, was negatively related to serum BDNF levels. These results in vivo confirm that the huntingtin mutation causes BDNF production to decline and show that the BDNF deficiency is detectable in HD patients' sera.”

 

Ciammola, A., Sassone, J., Cannella, M., Calza, S., Poletti, B., Frati, L., . . . Silani, V. (2007). Low brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in serum of Huntington's disease patients. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 144B(4), 574-577. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.b.30501

 

Hydrogen-rich saline protects against spinal cord injury in rats

 

“We observed that administration of hydrogen-rich saline decreased the number of apoptotic cells, suppressed oxidative stress, and improved locomotor functions. Hydrogen-rich saline increased the release of BDNF. In conclusion, hydrogen-rich saline reduced acute spinal cord contusion injury, possibly by reduction of oxidative stress and elevation of BDNF.”

 

Chen, C., Chen, Q., Mao, Y., Xu, S., Xia, C., Shi, X., . . . Sun, X. (2010). Hydrogen-rich saline protects against spinal cord injury in rats. Neurochemical Research, 35(7), 1111-1118. doi: 10.1007/s11064-010-0162-y

 

Mitochondrial dysfunction, metabolic deficits, and increased oxidative stress in Huntington’s disease

 

“Several pathogenic mechanisms of HD have been implicated. Among them, increased oxidative stress, metabolic deficits, and mitochondrial abnormalities play an important role. Therapeutics targeting these pathogenic pathways may be beneficial to HD patients.”

 

Chen, C. M. (2011). Mitochondrial dysfunction, metabolic deficits, and increased oxidative stress in Huntington's disease. Chang Gung Medical Journal, 34(2), 135-152. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21539755

 

Molecular hydrogen and its potential application in therapy of brain disorders

 

“A possible cause for the neuroprotective effect of hydrogen may be related to its high diffusibility. Hydrogen molecules can readily cross the blood-brain barrier and penetrate biomembranes smoothly to diffuse into the cytosol, nucleus and mitochondria. This is particularly important, as mitochondria is the major source of ROS and notoriously difficult to target. The protective effect of molecular hydrogen on the mitochondria have also been found in our study.”

 

Ma, F. X. (2015). Molecular hydrogen and its potential application in therapy of brain disorders. Brain Disorders & Therapy, 4(1), 1-2. doi: 10.4172/2168-975x.1000154

 

Mitochondria and disease progression in multiple sclerosis

 

“A dysfunction of mitochondria in lesions as well as in the normal-appearing white and grey matter is increasingly recognized in MS and could be an important determinant of axonal dysfunction and degeneration. Mitochondria are a potential therapeutic target in MS.”

 

Mahad, D., Lassmann, H., & Turnbull, D. (2008). Review: Mitochondria and disease progression in multiple sclerosis. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, 34(6), 577-589. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2990.2008.00987.x

 

Immunology and oxidative stress in multiple sclerosis: Clinical and basic approach

 

“Multiple sclerosis (MS) exhibits many of the hallmarks of an inflammatory autoimmune disorder including breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB)…Proinflammatory cytokines amplify the inflammatory cascade by compromising the BBB…The inflammatory environment in demyelinating lesions leads to the generation of oxygen- and nitrogen-free radicals as well as proinflammatory cytokines which contribute to the development and progression of the disease.”

 

Ortiz, G. G., Pacheco-Moises, F. P., Bitzer-Quintero, O. K., Ramirez-Anguiano, A. C., Flores-Alvarado, L. J., Ramirez-Ramirez, V., . . . Torres-Sanchez, E. D. (2013). Immunology and oxidative stress in multiple sclerosis: Clinical and basic approach. Clinical and Developmental Immunology, 2013(708659), 1-14. doi: 10.1155/2013/708659

 

Hydrogen-rich water improves neurological functional recovery in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice

 

“Molecular hydrogen (H2) has been reported to exhibit anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy, and anti-cancer effects. Because Hydrogen rich water is non-toxic, inexpensive, easily administered, and can readily cross the blood-brain barrier, our experiments suggest that HRW may have great potential in the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis.”

 

Zhao, M., Liu, M., Pu, Y., Wang, D., Xie, Y., Xue, G., . . . Cao, L. (2016). Hydrogen-rich water improves neurological functional recovery in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 294, 6-13. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2016.03.006

 

Blood-brain barrier disruption in multiple sclerosis

 

“Dysregulation of the BBB and transendothelial migration of activated leukocytes are among the earliest cerebrovascular abnormalities seen in multiple sclerosis (MS) brains.”

 

Minagar, A., & Alexander, J. S. (2003). Blood-brain barrier disruption in multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis, 9(6), 540-549. doi: 10.1191/1352458503ms965oa

 

Hydrogen improves neurological function through attenuation of blood–brain barrier disruption in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats

 

“The present study suggests that ingestion of HRW can improve neurological function outcome in the SHRSP model. This beneficial effect may be due to attenuation of BBB disruption via reduction in reactive oxygen species and suppression of MMP-9 activity in the hippocampus.”

 

Takeuchi, S., Nagatani, K., Otani, N., Nawashiro, H., Sugawara, T., Wada, K., & Mori, K. (2015). Hydrogen improves neurological function through attenuation of blood–brain barrier disruption in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats. BioMed Central Neuroscience, 16(22), 1-13. doi: 10.1186/s12868-015-0165-3

 

Role of oxidative stress in frontotemporal dementia

 

“Recent reports have established oxidative stress and damage as playing a role in the pathogenesis of a number of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, corticobasal degeneration, Pick's disease and Alexander's disease. Here we present evidence that oxidative damage is also one of the earliest cytopathological markers of neuronal dysfunction in frontotemporal dementia.”

 

Gerst, J. L., Siedlak, S. L., Nunomura, A., Castellani, R., Perry, G., & Smith, M. A. (1999). Role of oxidative stress in frontotemporal dementia. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 10(S1), 85-87. doi: 10.1159/000051220

 

Beneficial biological effects and the underlying mechanisms of molecular hydrogen - Comprehensive review of 321 original articles

 

“A total of 321 original articles have been published from 2007 to June 2015. Most studies have been conducted in Japan, China, and the USA. The effects have been reported in essentially all organs covering 31 disease categories that can be subdivided into 166 disease models, human diseases, treatment-associated pathologies, and pathophysiological conditions of plants with a predominance of oxidative stress-mediated diseases and inflammatory diseases.”

 

Ichihara, M., Sobue, S., Ito, M., Ito, M., Hirayama, M., & Ohno, K. (2015). Beneficial biological effects and the underlying mechanisms of molecular hydrogen - Comprehensive review of 321 original articles. Medical Gas Research, 5(12), 1-21. doi: 10.1186/s13618-015-0035-1

 

Lewy body diseases with dementia: Pathophysiology and treatment

 

“There are four major Lewy body disorders with dementia: Parkinson's disease (PD), PD with Alzheimer's disease (AD), cortical Lewy bodies and neuritic plaques, and cortical Lewy bodies and no concomitant AD-type pathology. A variety of pathogenetic processes may underly this panoply of diseases including oxidative stress, excitatory amino acid toxicity, amyloidogenesis, neurofibrillary tangle formation, inflammation, apoptotic cell death, and neurotransmitter deficiency. Treatment strategies include transmitter replacement, neuroprotection, agents to limit AD-type pathology, iron chelation, and anti-inflammatory drugs.”

 

Cummings, J. (1995). Lewy body diseases with dementia: Pathophysiology and treatment. Brain and Cognition, 28(3), 266-280. doi: 10.1006/brcg.1995.1257

 

Evidence for oxidative stress in the subthalamic nucleus in progressive supranuclear palsy

 

“In PSP, a significant increase in tissue MDA levels was observed in the STN when compared with the age-matched control group. By contrast, no significant difference between tissue MDA content was observed in cerebellar tissue from the same PSP and age-matched control cases. These results indicate that lipid peroxidation may play a role in the pathogenesis of PSP.”

 

Albers, D. S., Augood, S. J., Martin, D. M., Standaert, D. G., Vonsattel, J. P., & Beal, M. F. (1999). Evidence for oxidative stress in the subthalamic nucleus in progressive supranuclear palsy. Journal of Neurochemistry, 73(2), 881-884. doi: 10.1046/j.1471-4159.1999.0730881.x

 

Oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in prion diseases

 

“Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), also termed prion diseases, are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and a number of other animal species. Oxidative stress has been proposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, evidence of oxidative stress in scrapie, the archetype disease of the TSEs, is discussed. In addition, the mechanisms whereby oxidative stress could lead to neuronal degeneration are described.”

 

Kim, J. I., Choi, S. I., Kim, N. H., Jin, J. K., Choi, E. K., Carp, R. I., & Kim, Y. S. (2001). Oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in prion diseases. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 928, 182-186. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2001.tb05648.x

 

The evolution of molecular hydrogen: A noteworthy potential therapy with clinical significance

 

“Hydrogen is qualified to cross the blood brain barrier, to enter the mitochondria, and even has the ability to translocate to the nucleus under certain conditions. Once in these ideal locations of the cell, previous studies have shown that hydrogen exerts antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective properties that are beneficial to the cell.”

 

Dixon, B. J., Tang, J., & Zhang, J. H. (2013). The evolution of molecular hydrogen: A noteworthy potential therapy with clinical significance. Medical Gas Research, 3(10), 1-12. doi: 10.1186/2045-9912-3-10

© 2018 trusii. All Rights Reserved

The statements on this website have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.
The products on this website are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.