Hair Loss Prevention and Restoration
Research & Studies

Oxidative stress in ageing of hair

 

“Ageing of hair manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production or alopecia. There is circumstantial evidence that oxidative stress may be a pivotal mechanism contributing to hair graying and hair loss. New insights into the role and prevention of oxidative stress could open new strategies for intervention and reversal of the hair graying process and age-dependent alopecia.”

 

Trüeb, R. M. (2009). Oxidative stress in ageing of hair. International Journal of Trichology, 1(1), 6–14. doi: 10.4103/0974-7753.51923

 


Lipid peroxides induce early onset of catagen phase in murine hair cycles

 

“Furthermore, by using TUNEL staining we found that lipid peroxides induced apoptosis of hair follicle cells. They also induced apoptosis in human epidermal keratinocytes by up-regulating apoptosis-related genes. These results indicated that lipid peroxides, which can cause free radicals, induce the apoptosis of hair follicle cells, and this is followed by early onset of the catagen phase. These observations may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the development of alopecia in humans.”

 

Naito, A., Midorikawa, T., Yoshino, T., & Ohdera, M. (2008). Lipid peroxides induce early onset of catagen phase in murine hair cycles. . International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 22(6), 725-729. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19020769/
 

Association of oxidative stress to the genesis of anxiety: Implications for possible therapeutic interventions

 

“This review focuses on direct and indirect evidence of the potential involvement of oxidative stress in the genesis of anxiety and discusses different opinions that exist in this field. Antioxidant therapeutic strategies are also discussed, highlighting the importance of oxidative stress in the etiology, incidence, progression, and prevention of psychiatric disorders.”

 

Hassan, W., Silva, C. E. B., Mohammadzai, I. U., da Rocha, J. B. T., & Landeira-Fernandez, J. (2014). Association of Oxidative Stress to the Genesis of Anxiety: Implications for Possible Therapeutic Interventions. Current Neuropharmacology, 12(2), 120–139. doi: 10.2174/1570159X11666131120232135

 


Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: A review of clinical and experimental studies

“In the clinic, oral administration of H(2)-saturated water is reported to improve lipid and glucose metabolism in subjects with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance; promising results have also been obtained in reducing inflammation in haemodialysis patients and treating metabolic syndrome. These studies suggest H(2) has selective antioxidant properties, and can exert antiapoptotic, antiinflammatory and antiallergy effects.

 

Hong, Y., Chen, S., & Zhang, J. (2010). Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: A review of clinical and experimental studies. Journal of International Medical Research, 38(6), 1893-1903. doi: 10.1177/147323001003800602

 

Oxidative stress in androgenetic alopecia


“Decreased total antioxidant activity and increased MDA levels found in plasma samples of patients with androgenetic alopecia are indicators of oxidative stress presence in these patients. Significantly decreased SOD activity but no change in catalase, glutathione peroxidase, non protein thiols level and total antioxidant activity in erythrocytes are elements which suggest the presence of a compensatory mechanism for SOD dysfunction in red blood cells of patients with androgenetic alopecia.”

 

Prie, B., Iosif, L., Tivig, I., Stoian, I., & Giurcaneanu, C. (2016). Oxidative stress in androgenetic alopecia. Journal of Medicine and Life, 9(1), 79–83. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5152608/

 


Hydrogen-rich saline attenuate chemotherapy-induced ovarian injury via regulation of oxidative stress

 

“Hydrogen has been reported to exert a therapeutic effect in several diseases due to its antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. Hydrogen‑rich saline exerts a protective effect against cisplatin-induced ovarian injury by reducing MDA and increasing SOD and CAT activity. Ovarian injury induced by chemotherapy involves the activation of Nrf2.”

 

Meng, X., Chen, H., Wang, G., Yu, Y., & Xie, K. (2015). Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates chemotherapy-induced ovarian injury via regulation of oxidative stress. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 10(6), 2277-2282. doi: 10.3892/etm.2015.2787

 


Oxidative stress-associated senescence in dermal papilla cells of men with androgenetic alopecia

“These in vitro findings suggest that there may be a role for oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia both in relation to cell senescence and migration but also secretion of known hair follicle inhibitory factors.”

Upton, J. H., Hannen, R. F., Bahta, A. W., Farjo, N., Farjo, B., & Philpott, M. P. (2015). Oxidative stress-associated senescence in dermal papilla cells of men with androgenetic alopecia. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 135(5), 1244-1252. doi: 10.1038/jid.2015.28

 


Hair growth and alopecia in hypothyroidism

 

“In all instances, deficiency of thyroid hormone was associated with an increase in the percentage of telogen hairs. Normal telogen-anagen hair relationships were restored during replacement therapy with thyroid hormone; this response was elicited even during the concurrent administration of antithyroid drugs (ie, thiourylenes). The response to treatment with thyroid hormone and the temporal correlations indicate that the alopecia is mediated via effects of the hormone on the initiation as well as the duration of hair growth.”

 

Freinkel, R. K., & Frienkel, N. (1972). Hair growth and alopecia in hypothyroidism. Archives of Dermatology, 106(3), 349-352. doi: 10.1001/archderm.1972.01620120037007

 


Oxidative stress in hypothyroid patients and the role of antioxidant supplementation

 

“Oxidative stress compounds hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is a state of increased oxidative stress. In this study, biomarker, MDA level is high in treatment-naive primary hypothyroid patients. After treatment with L-thyroxine, the stress marker is reduced to a significant extent. MDA can be used as a useful biomarker to measure and monitor oxidative stress.”

 

Chakrabarti, S. K., Ghosh, S., Banerjee, S., Mukherjee, S., & Chowdhury, S. (2016). Oxidative stress in hypothyroid patients and the role of antioxidant supplementation. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 20(5), 674–678. doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.190555

 


Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals

“Hydrogen selectively reduces the hydroxyl radical, the most toxic free radical, and effectively protects cells. It does not react with free radicals that have physiological benefits, making it an incredibly effective therapy to neutralize acute oxidative stress.”

 

Ohsawa, I., Ishikawa, M., Takahashi, K., Watanabe, M., Nishimaki, K., Yamagata, K., . . . Ohta, S. (2007). Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Nature Medicine, 13(6), 688-694. doi: 10.1038/nm1577

 

Androgenetic alopecia, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance: Is there any association? A case–control study

“Insulin resistance plays a pathogenetic role in the miniaturization of hair follicles. Vasoactive substances associated with endothelial dysfunction in IR lead to microcirculatory disturbance, perifollicular vasoconstriction, and proliferation of smooth muscle cells in the vascular wall. This condition leads to microvascular insufficiency, local-tissue hypoxia, and progressive miniaturization of hair follicles. Metabolic syndrome is significantly associated with Androgenetic alopecia particularly, early-onset alopecia. Insulin resistance is mostly the underlying pathologic mechanism.”

 

Bakry, O. A., Shoeib, M. A. M., El Shafiee, M. K., & Hassan, A. (2014). Androgenetic alopecia, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance: Is there any association? A case–control study. Indian Dermatology Online Journal, 5(3), 276–281. doi: 10.4103/2229-5178.137776

 

Supplementation of hydrogen-rich water improves lipid and glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance

 

“In 4 of 6 patients with impaired glucose tolerance, intake of hydrogen-rich water normalized the oral glucose tolerance test. In conclusion, these results suggest that supplementation with hydrogen-rich water may have a beneficial role in prevention of T2DM and insulin resistance.”

 

Kajiyama, S., Hasegawa, G., Asano, M., Hosoda, H., Fukui, M., Nakamura, N., . . . Yoshikawa, T. (2008). Supplementation of hydrogen-rich water improves lipid and glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Nutrition Research, 28(3), 137-143. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2008.01.008 

 

The association of androgenetic alopecia and insulin resistance is independent of hyperandrogenemia: A case-control study

 

“All IR parameters were significantly higher in the 75 study subjects without DM than in the control group (P < 0.05). After excluding five patients with IGT, the level of all IR parameters were still higher than in the control group (P < 0.05). Hyperandrogenemia was found in 30 (40%) patients. When this second group (n = 45) (excluding patients with hyperandrogenemia) was compared with the control group on IR, all parameters except for basal insulin were significantly higher in the second group than in the controls (P < 0.05). Our results suggest a relation between IR and AGA in female patients. We showed for the first time that the association of AGA and IR is independent of hyperandrogenemia.”

 

Kartal, D., Borlu, M., Çınar, S. L., Ferahbaş, A., Ulaş, Y., Ünlühızarcı, K., . . . Keleştimur, F. (2015). The association of androgenetic alopecia and insulin resistance is independent of hyperandrogenemia: A case-control study. Australasian Journal of Dermatology, 57(3). doi: 10.1111/ajd.12285
 


Therapeutic effects of hydrogen saturated saline on rat diabetic model and insulin resistant model via reduction of oxidative stress

 

“Hydrogen saturated saline showed great efficiency in improving the insulin sensitivity and lowering blood glucose and lipids. Hydrogen saturated saline markedly attenuated the malondialdehyde level and elevated the levels of antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione. Hydrogen saturated saline may improve the insulin resistance and alleviate the symptoms of diabetes mellitus by reducing the oxidative stress and enhancing the anti-oxidant system”

 

Wang, Q., Zha, X., Kang, Z., Xu, M., Huang, Q., & Zou, D. (2012). Therapeutic effects of hydrogen saturated saline on rat diabetic model and insulin resistant model via reduction of oxidative stress. Chinese Medical Journal, 125(9), 1633-1637. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22800834

 

The role of inflammation and immunity in the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia

 

“A lymphocytic microfolliculitis targeting the bulge epithelium along with deposits of epithelial basement membrane zone immunoreactants are frequent findings in androgenetic alopecia and could point toward an immunologically driven trigger. Cases showing a positive immunoreactant profile respond well to combined modality therapy compared to those with a negative result.”

 

Magro, C. M., Rossi, A., Poe, J., Manhas-Bhutani, S., & Sadick, N. (2011). The role of inflammation and immunity in the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia. Journal of Drugs and Dermatology, 10(12), 1404-1411. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22134564

 


Characterization of inflammatory infiltrates in male pattern alopecia: Implications for pathogenesis

 

“Inflammatory cells infiltrated the region of the follicular bulge, the putative source of stem cells in cycling follicles. The data suggest that progressive fibrosis of the perifollicular sheath occurs in lesions of pattern alopecia, and may begin with T-cell infiltration of follicular stem cell epithelium. Injury to follicular stem cell epithelium and/or thickening of adventitial sheaths may impair normal pilar cycling and result in hair loss.”

 

Jaworsky, C., Kligman, A., & Murphy, G. (1992). Characterization of inflammatory infiltrates in male pattern alopecia: Implications for pathogenesis. British Journal of Dermatology, 127(3), 239-246. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.1992.tb00121.x

 

Hydrogen resuscitation, a new cytoprotective approach

 

“Recent evidence indicates that hydrogen is a potent anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory agent and so may have potential medical application. Studies have shown that hydrogen resuscitation has cytoprotective effects in different cell types and disease models, including ischaemia-reperfusion injury, inflammation, toxicity, trauma and metabolic disease. The underlying mechanism may be the selective elimination of hydroxyl radicals, although other mechanisms may also be involved (e.g. hydrogen functioning as a gaseous signalling molecule). Hydrogen resuscitation may have several potential advantages over current pharmacological therapies for oxidative injuries.”

 

Zheng, X., Sun, X., & Xia, Z. (2011). Hydrogen resuscitation, a new cytoprotective approach. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 38(3), 155-163. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1681.2011.05479.x

 

Defects in mitochondrial DNA replication and oxidative damage in muscle of mtDNA mutator mice

 

“A causal role for mitochondrial dysfunction in mammalian aging is supported by recent studies of the mtDNA mutator mouse ("PolG" mouse), which harbors a defect in the proofreading-exonuclease activity of mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma. These mice exhibit accelerated aging phenotypes characteristic of human aging, including systemic mitochondrial dysfunction, exercise intolerance, alopecia and graying of hair, curvature of the spine, and premature mortality.”

 

Kolesar, J. E., Safdar, A., Abadi, A., Macneil, L. G., Crane, J. D., Tarnopolsky, M. A., & Kaufman, B. A. (2014). Defects in mitochondrial DNA replication and oxidative damage in muscle of mtDNA mutator mice. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 75, 241-251. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2014.07.038
 


Mitochondrial dysfunction as a cause of ageing

 

“Studies of mtDNA mutator mice has shown that increased levels of somatic mtDNA mutations directly can cause a variety of ageing phenotypes, such as osteoporosis, hair loss, greying of the hair, weight reduction and decreased fertility.”

 

Trifunovic, A., & Larsson, N. (2008). Mitochondrial dysfunction as a cause of ageing. Journal of Internal Medicine, 263(2), 167-178. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2007.01905.x

 


Molecular hydrogen is a novel antioxidant to efficiently reduce oxidative stress with potential for the improvement of mitochondrial diseases

 

“Hydrogen has many advantages for therapeutic and preventive applications, and shows not only anti-oxidative stress effects, but also has various anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. Preliminary clinical trials show that drinking hydrogen-dissolved water seems to improve the pathology of mitochondrial disorders.”

 

Ohta, S. (2012). Molecular hydrogen is a novel antioxidant to efficiently reduce oxidative stress with potential for the improvement of mitochondrial diseases. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1820(5), 586-594. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2011.05.006

 

Male androgenetic alopecia

 

“Hair cycle in mammals has an intrinsic rhythmic behaviour and this is modified by systemic and local factors. Humans have an asynchronous hair cycle and the duration of anagen and the final length of hair differ between regions of the body. A number of molecular signals including growth factors, nuclear receptors, cytokines and intracellular signalling pathways are involved in controlling the hair cycle. Growth factors such as IGF-1, hepatocyte growth factor, keratinocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promote anagen phase of the hair cycle. Similarly, transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta), interleukin 1-alpha and tumor necrosis factor-alpha promote onset of catagen”

Cranwell, W., Sinclair, R. (2016). Male androgenetic alopecia. In: De Groot,  L. J., Chrousos, G., Dungan, K., et al., (Eds.), Endotext. South Dartmouth, MA: MDText.com, Inc. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK278957/

 


Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) activator expressed in hair follicles is involved in in vitro HGF-dependent hair follicle elongation

 

“In an organ culture system, single-chain HGF stimulated hair follicle elongation, which was partially inhibited by aprotinin, a serine proteinase inhibitor (P<0.01). These results suggest that single-chain HGF secreted from follicular papilla cells is converted to an active heterodimeric form by intrinsic HGF activator and that the resultant active form of HGF stimulates hair growth.”

 

Lee, Y., Yamazaki, M., Mitsui, S., Tsuboi, R., & Ogawa, H. (2001). Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) activator expressed in hair follicles is involved in in vitro HGF-dependent hair follicle elongation. Journal of Dermatological Science, 25(2), 156-163. doi: 10.1016/s0923-1811(00)00124-9

 


Hydrogen-rich water protects against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice


"The exposure of hepatocytes to growth factor leads to the expression of cell cycle proteins. Cyclin D1 is the most reliable marker for cell cycle (G1 phase) progression in hepatocytes. These changes in cyclin D1 expression were associated with decreased serum ALT/AST levels and improvement of liver regeneration in HRW-treated mice that received APAP, suggesting that HRW facilitates the activation of cyclin D1-mediated regeneration pathways."

Zhang, J.-Y., Song, S.-D., Pang, Q., Zhang, R.-Y., Wan, Y., Yuan, D.-W., … Liu, C. (2015). Hydrogen-rich water protects against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. World Journal of Gastroenterology:  21(14), 4195–4209. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i14.4195

 


Hydrogen-rich saline improves memory function in a rat model of amyloid-beta-induced Alzheimer's disease by reduction of oxidative stress

 

“After Abeta1-42 injection, the levels of MDA, IL-6, and TNF-alpha were increased in brain tissues and hydrogen-rich saline treatment suppressed MDA, IL-6, and TNF-alpha concentration.”

 

Li, J., Wang, C., Zhang, J. H., Cai, J., Cao, Y., & Sun, X. (2010). Hydrogen-rich saline improves memory function in a rat model of amyloid-beta-induced Alzheimer's disease by reduction of oxidative stress. Brain Research, 1328, 152-161. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2010.02.046 

 


Premature graying as a consequence of compromised antioxidant activity in hair bulb melanocytes and their precursors

 

“These data provide the first clear evidence that compromised antioxidant activity in gray hair follicles simultaneously affects mature hair bulb melanocytes and their immature precursor cells in the bulge region.”

 

Shi, Y., Luo, L.-F., Liu, X.-M., Zhou, Q., Xu, S.-Z., & Lei, T.-C. (2014). Premature graying as a consequence of compromised antioxidant activity in hair bulb melanocytes and their precursors. PLOS ONE, 9(4), 1-8. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093589

 

Towards a "free radical theory of graying": Melanocyte apoptosis in the aging human hair follicle is an indicator of oxidative stress induced tissue damage


“We conclude that oxidative stress is high in hair follicle melanocytes and leads to their selective premature aging and apoptosis. The graying hair follicle, therefore, offers a unique model system to study oxidative stress and aging and to test antiaging therapeutics in their ability to slow down or even stop this process.”

 

Arck, P. C. (2006). Towards a "free radical theory of graying": Melanocyte apoptosis in the aging human hair follicle is an indicator of oxidative stress induced tissue damage. Federation of American Society of Experimental Biology Journal, 20(9), 1567-1569. doi: 10.1096/fj.05-4039fje

 


Molecular hydrogen: A therapeutic antioxidant and beyond

 

“Although the underlying mechanisms were initially proposed as selective extinctions of hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite, the signaling pathway regulation effect of molecular hydrogen by modulating a various molecules expressions/activities, gene expression and microRNA may also account for the ultimate effects of anti-reperfusion injury, anti-infammation, anti-apoptosis, anti-metabolic disorders, anti-allergy, anti-radiation injury, anti-dementia as well as anti-aging”

 

Huang, L. (2016). Molecular hydrogen: A therapeutic antioxidant and beyond. Medical Gas Research, 6(4), 219–222. doi: 10.4103/2045-9912.196904 

 

Molecular mechanisms of androgenetic alopecia


“Since the clinical success rate of treatment of AGA with modulators of androgen metabolism or hair growth promoters is limited, sustained microscopic follicular inflammation with connective tissue remodeling, eventually resulting in permanent hair loss, is considered a possible cofactor in the complex etiology of AGA.”

 

Trüeb, R. M. (2002). Molecular mechanisms of androgenetic alopecia. Experimental Gerontology, 37(8-9), 981-990. doi: 10.1016/s0531-5565(02)00093-1

 


Oxidative stress biomarkers and adenosine deaminase over the alopecic area of the patients with alopecia areata

 

“Based on these results, factors associated with oxidative stress were elevated in AA patient scalp-scrapes compared to controls and may have a defined role the disease pathogenesis. Alterations in the activities of antioxidant enzymes from AA patient scraping samples may be a local effect of elevated oxidative stress levels. In this disease, oxidative stress may affect not only hair follicle but also any layers of the skin.”

 

Öztürk, P., Arıcan, Ö., Kurutaş, E. B., & Mülayim, K. (2016). Oxidative stress biomarkers and adenosine deaminase over the alopecic area of the patients with alopecia areata. Balkan Medical Journal, 33(2), 188–192. doi: 10.5152/balkanmedj.2016.16190

 

The evolution of molecular hydrogen: A noteworthy potential therapy with clinical significance

 

“Hydrogen is qualified to cross the blood brain barrier, to enter the mitochondria, and even has the ability to translocate to the nucleus under certain conditions. Once in these ideal locations of the cell, previous studies have shown that hydrogen exerts antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective properties that are beneficial to the cell.”

 

Dixon, B. J., Tang, J., & Zhang, J. H. (2013). The evolution of molecular hydrogen: A noteworthy potential therapy with clinical significance. Medical Gas Research, 3(10), 1-12. doi: 10.1186/2045-9912-3-10

 


Investigation of oxidative stress in patients with alopecia areata and its relationship with disease severity, duration, recurrence and pattern

 

“Patients with AA displayed reduced erythrocyte SOD and GSH-Px activities and enhanced plasma MDA levels. These findings support the possible role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of AA.
 

Yenin, J. Z., Serarslan, G., Yönden, Z., & Ulutaş, K. T. (2014). Investigation of oxidative stress in patients with alopecia areata and its relationship with disease severity, duration, recurrence and pattern. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology, 40(6), 617-621. doi: 10.1111/ced.12556

 

Molecular hydrogen as a preventive and therapeutic medical gas: Initiation, development and potential of hydrogen medicine

 

“The numerous publications on its biological and medical benefits revealed that H2 reduces oxidative stress not only by direct reactions with strong oxidants, but also indirectly by regulating various gene expressions. Moreover, by regulating the gene expressions, H2 functions as an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic, and stimulates energy metabolism.”

 

Ohta, S. (2014). Molecular hydrogen as a preventive and therapeutic medical gas: Initiation, development and potential of hydrogen medicine. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 144(1), 1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2014.04.006

 


Oxidative stress and alopecia areata

 

“The attenuation of oxidative stress might be a relevant therapeutic approach and antioxidants can be recommended as additional drugs in Alopecia Areata treatment”


Prie, B., Voiculescu, V., Ionescu-Bozdog, O., Petrutescu, B., Iosif, L., Gaman, L., … Giurcaneanu, C. (2015). Oxidative stress and alopecia areata . Journal of Medicine and Life, 8(Spec Issue), 43–46. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4564047/
 


Beneficial biological effects and the underlying mechanisms of molecular hydrogen - Comprehensive review of 321 original articles

 

“A total of 321 original articles have been published from 2007 to June 2015. Most studies have been conducted in Japan, China, and the USA. The effects have been reported in essentially all organs covering 31 disease categories that can be subdivided into 166 disease models, human diseases, treatment-associated pathologies, and pathophysiological conditions of plants with a predominance of oxidative stress-mediated diseases and inflammatory diseases.”

 

Ichihara, M., Sobue, S., Ito, M., Ito, M., Hirayama, M., & Ohno, K. (2015). Beneficial biological effects and the underlying mechanisms of molecular hydrogen - Comprehensive review of 321 original articles. Medical Gas Research, 5(12), 1-21. doi: 10.1186/s13618-015-0035-1
 


Early stage alopecia areata is associated with inflammation in the upper dermis and damage to the hair follicle infundibulum

 

“In early AA lesions, inflammatory infiltration in the upper dermis and epithelial cell damage of the hair follicle infundibulum, just above the sebaceous gland, was observed. Liquefaction and disarrangement of peripheral infundibular epithelial cells coexisted with T-lymphocytic invasion and regression of the lower follicle. The latter findings positively correlated with the presence of eosinophils and perivascular mononuclear cell infiltration in the upper dermis. Eosinophilic infiltration was found in 35 patients (40%) and was positively correlated to elevated serum IgE levels (r = 0.21, P = 0.044), a more severe perivascular lymphocytic inflammation in the upper dermis (r = 0.24, P = 0.026), as well as a prominent swarm of bees-like peri-follicular infiltration (r = 0.41, P < 0.001). Mast cells were abundant in the upper dermis, especially around blood vessels, and positively correlated with eosinophil presence (r = 0.30, P = 0.027).”

Zhang, B., Zhao, Y., Cai, Z., Caulloo, S., Mcelwee, K. J., Li, Y., . . . Zhang, X. (2013). Early stage alopecia areata is associated with inflammation in the upper dermis and damage to the hair follicle infundibulum. Australasian Journal of Dermatology, 54(3), 184-191. doi: 10.1111/ajd.12065

 


Recent advances in hydrogen research as a therapeutic medical gas

 

“Recent basic and clinical research has revealed that hydrogen is an important physiological regulatory factor with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic protective effects on cells and organs.”

 

Huang, C., Kawamura, T., Toyoda, Y., & Nakao, A. (2010). Recent advances in hydrogen research as a therapeutic medical gas. Free Radical Research, 44(9), 971-982. doi: 10.3109/10715762.2010.500328 

 

Hydrogen protects vestibular hair cells from free radicals

 

“Hydrogen gas effectively protected against the morphological and functional vestibular hair cell damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS).”

 

Taura, A., Kikkawa, Y. S., Nakagawa, T., & Ito, J. (2010). Hydrogen protects vestibular hair cells from free radicals. Acta Oto-Laryngologica, 130(563), 95-100. doi: 10.3109/00016489.2010.486799

 

Hydrogen in drinking water attenuates noise-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs

 

“These findings suggest that hydrogen can facilitate the recovery of hair cell function...”

 

Lin, Y., Kashio, A., Sakamoto, T., Suzukawa, K., Kakigi, A., & Yamasoba, T. (2011). Hydrogen in drinking water attenuates noise-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs. Neuroscience Letters, 487(1), 12-16. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2010.09.064

 

Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates cisplatin-induced ototoxicity via reducing oxidative stress

 

“H2 treatment significantly alleviated cisplatin-induced hair cell damage in the organ of corti.”

 

Qu, J., Li, X., Wang, J., Mi, W., Xie, K., & Qiu, J. (2012). Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates cisplatin-induced ototoxicity via reducing oxidative stress. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 76(1), 111-115. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2011.10.014

 

Hydrogen-rich saline alleviates experimental noise-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs

 

“Hydrogen-rich saline can alleviate experimental noise-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs, partially by preventing the death of cochlear hair cells after intensive noise exposure.”

 

Zhou, Y., Zheng, H., Ruan, F., Chen, X., Zheng, G., Kang, M., . . . Sun, X. (2012). Hydrogen-rich saline alleviates experimental noise-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs. Neuroscience, 209, 47-53. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.02.028

 

Hydrogen-saturated saline protects intensive narrow band noise-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs through an antioxidant effect

 

“…we found that pre-treatment with hydrogen-saturated saline significantly reduced noise-induced hair cell damage and hearing loss.”

 

Chen, L., Yu, N., Lu, Y., Wu, L., Chen, D., Guo, W., . . . Zhai, S. (2014). Hydrogen-saturated saline protects intensive narrow band noise-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs through an antioxidant effect. PLOS ONE, 9(6), 1-5. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100774

 

Hydrogen protects auditory hair cells from cisplatin-induced free radicals 

 

“Hydrogen gas increased the number of surviving hair cells after cisplatin damage. Cisplatin caused hair cell loss in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the addition of hydrogen gas significantly increased the numbers of remaining auditory hair cells”

 

Kikkawa, Y. S., Nakagawa, T., Taniguchi, M., & Ito, J. (2014). Hydrogen protects auditory hair cells from cisplatin-induced free radicals. Neuroscience Letters, 579, 125-129. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2014.07.025

 

Hydrogen protects auditory hair cells from free radicals

 

“Incubation with a hydrogen-saturated medium significantly reduced ROS generation and subsequent lipid peroxidation in the auditory epithelia, leading to increased survival of the hair cells. These findings show the potential of hydrogen to protect auditory hair cells from ROS-induced damage.”

 

Kikkawa, Y. S., Nakagawa, T., Horie, R. T., & Ito, J. (2009). Hydrogen protects auditory hair cells from free radicals. NeuroReport, 20(7), 689-694. doi: 10.1097/wnr.0b013e32832a5c68

The statements on this website have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.
The products on this website are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

© 2018 trusii. All Rights Reserved