Performance: Amplify Your Power

Protecting the Phosphagen Pathway 

 

Athletes require a great deal of energy in order to develop the explosive strength and power that will allow them to maximize their performance results. The energy currency of life, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the underlying biological mechanism that fuels everything, including intense physical activity. Moreover, creatine kinase, an enzyme that converts creatine phosphate (CP) to produce ATP, helps amplify various movements (especially short bursts that last no more than ten seconds) that are particularly important for athletes’ ability to generate power. Unfortunately, the high intensity training athletes go through to reach peak performance also increases free radical concentrations in the body, specifically, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and at high volumes can have deleterious effects that subsequently impact power output.  These ROS destroy creatine kinase, consequently reducing the ATP supply available to the muscles,  creating a serious barrier for athletes to excel to new heights. However, H2 has the power to eliminate these harmful ROS, by preserving the phosphagen pathway (the system that uses creatine kinase to synthesize ATP), increasing the total amount of CP and ATP stored in muscles, and increasing the subsequent energy available for muscle contractions. Therefore, H2’s powerful antioxidant properties protect the creatine kinase enzyme from oxidative stress and thereby prevent the loss of ATP production during even the most intense training regimens.

Increasing ATP Production Through Mitochondrial Synthesis and Preventing Mitochondrial Dysfunction

 

As the energy powerhouse of our cells (responsible for ATP production), mitochondria are essential to an athlete’s ability to exert power and force. As noted above, athletes are prone to higher concentrations of free radicals within their bodies, specifically, reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are produced in the mitochondria. In excess, ROS can damage and disrupt proper mitochondrial functioning, limiting overall ATP production. However, H2 has the power to neutralize these toxic ROS levels and prevent mitochondrial dysfunction, allowing for more efficient ATP production. Furthermore, H2 has also been shown to increase PGC-1a expression, which activates mitochondrial synthesis and increases the overall mitochondrial supply within the body. Together, these mechanisms significantly raise ATP production, generating the energy athletes require for powerful, explosive movements.  

 

Improving Insulin Sensitivity and Glut4 Expression 

 

Given athletes rigorous training schedules, the increased oxygenation required to fuel the muscles leads to excess free radical formation, placing them at risk for the harmful damages that occur as a result of oxidative stress. This state of oxidative stress has been shown to diminish the expression of Glut4, a substance that allows for more efficient storage of dietary carbohydrates and thus more long-term energy supply.  When food is consumed, carbohydrates are converted into glucose (sugar), which is then stored as glycogen. During exercise, this glycogen is broken down into a useable energy source called ATP (adenosine triphosphate),  and serves as the body’s direct energy supply. As such, increased glycogen storage has been shown to enhance athletic power output.  In turn, by increasing the expression of Glut4,  H2 increases the available fuel – dramatically boosting the muscle fuel stores that allow greater involvement of muscle fibers to take place during exercise and amplifying power.  Additionally, H2 also promotes ATP production by increasing insulin sensitivity.  Similar to the Glut4 gene, more efficient insulin sensitivity promotes effective glycogen storage within the body, yielding a much higher supply of muscle fuel (insulin has also been shown to facilitate muscular development and decrease the potential for muscle to break down).  Thus, H2 effectively enhances power by activating the systems in charge of fueling the muscles and enabling athletes to generate greater power in their performance.
 

H2 can amplify your power by...
References

[1] Simulating the physiology of athletes during endurance sports events: Modelling human energy conversion and metabolism

 

“Physical exercise affects human physiology at multiple scales. The physical work done by athletes is associated with force exertion, temperature changes in the whole body, sweat excretion and increased uptake of oxygen, water and food, all measurable at the whole body level. At the cellular scale, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis energizes the interaction of actin and myosin molecules in the sarcomeres of the muscle cells.”

 

Van Beek, J. H. G. M., Supandi, F., Gavai, A. K., de Graaf, A. A., Binsl, T. W., & Hettling, H. (2011). Simulating the physiology of athletes during endurance sports events: modelling human energy conversion and metabolism. Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences, 369(1954), 4295–4315.doi: 10.1098/rsta.2011.0166

 

[2] Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: A brief review

 

“During severe exercise the energy yield from the phosphagen system may continue until the stores of CrP are largely depleted. This can occur within 10 s of the onset of maximal exercise due to the exponential path of decay that CrP degradation has been found to follow. Thus the energetic capacity of this system is dependent on the concentration of creatine phosphate.”

 

Bird, S. P. (2003). Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: A brief review. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 2(4), 123–132. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3963244/

 

[3] Creatine kinase is the main target of reactive oxygen species in cardiac myofibrils

 

“These results suggest that ROS mainly alters CK in myofibrils, probably by the oxidation of its essential sulfhydryl groups. Such CK inactivation results in a decrease in the intramyofibrillar ATP-to-ADP ratio.”

 

Mekhfi, H., Veksler, V., Mateo, P., Maupoil, V., Rochette, L., & Ventura-Clapier, R. (1996). Creatine kinase is the main target of reactive oxygen species in cardiac myofibrils. Circulation Research, 78(6), 1016-1027. doi: 10.1161/01.res.78.6.1016

 

[4] Oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines

 

“Elite sports engagement is a potent stimulus of oxidative stress that leads to the large recruitment of antioxidative defense. Oxidative stress status monitoring followed by appropriate use of antioxidants is recommended as a part of training regime.”

 

Hadžović - Džuvo, A., Valjevac, A., Lepara, O., Pjanić, S., Hadžimuratović, A., & Mekić, A. (2014). Oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines. Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, 14(2), 56–62. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4333958/

 

[5] Creatine supplementation enhances anaerobic ATP synthesis during a single 10 sec maximal handgrip exercise

 

“An increase in total anaerobic ATP synthesis during Ex10 after Cr supplementation positively correlated with the increase in ATP synthesis through PCr hydrolysis. Cr supplementation produced a 15.1 +/- 3.8% increase in the mean power output during Ex10.”

 

Kurosawa, Y., Hamaoka, T., Katsumura, T., Kuwamori, M., Kimura, N., Sako, T., & Chance, B. (2003). Creatine supplementation enhances anaerobic ATP synthesis during a single 10 sec maximal handgrip exercise. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 244(1-2), 105-112. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4615-0247-0_15

 

 

[6] Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: A review of clinical and experimental studies

“In the clinic, oral administration of H(2)-saturated water is reported to improve lipid and glucose metabolism in subjects with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance; promising results have also been obtained in reducing inflammation in haemodialysis patients and treating metabolic syndrome. These studies suggest H(2) has selective antioxidant properties, and can exert antiapoptotic, antiinflammatory and antiallergy effects.

 

Hong, Y., Chen, S., & Zhang, J. (2010). Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: A review of clinical and experimental studies. Journal of International Medical Research, 38(6), 1893-1903. doi: 10.1177/147323001003800602

 

[7] Molecular hydrogen as a preventive and therapeutic medical gas: Initiation, development and potential of hydrogen medicine

 

“The numerous publications on its biological and medical benefits revealed that H2 reduces oxidative stress not only by direct reactions with strong oxidants, but also indirectly by regulating various gene expressions. Moreover, by regulating the gene expressions, H2 functions as an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic, and stimulates energy metabolism.”

 

Ohta, S. (2014). Molecular hydrogen as a preventive and therapeutic medical gas: Initiation, development and potential of hydrogen medicine. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 144(1), 1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2014.04.006

 

[8] Effects of creatine supplementation on performance and training adaptations

 

“Although not all studies report significant results, the preponderance of scientific evidence indicates that creatine supplementation appears to be a generally effective nutritional ergogenic aid for a variety of exercise tasks in a number of athletic and clinical populations.”

 

Kreider, R. B. (2003). Effects of creatine supplementation on performance and training adaptations. Guanidino Compounds in Biology and Medicine, 244(1-2), 89-94. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4615-0247-0_13

 

 

[9] Molecular hydrogen stimulates the gene expression of transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α to enhance fatty acid metabolism

 

“In wild-type mice fed the fatty diet, H2-water improved the level of plasma triglycerides and extended their average of lifespan. H2 induces expression of the PGC-1α gene, followed by stimulation of the PPARα pathway that regulates FGF21, and the fatty acid and steroid metabolism.”

 

Kamimura, N. Ichimaya, H. Iuchi, K. & Ohta, S. (2016). Molecular hydrogen stimulates the gene expression of transcriptional coactivator PGC-1a to enhance fatty acid metabolism. NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease, 2(16008), 1-8. doi: 10.1038/npjamd.2016.8

 

[10] Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis

 

“PGC-1α (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α) is a co-transcriptional regulation factor that induces mitochondrial biogenesis by activating different transcription factors, including nuclear respiratory factor 1 and nuclear respiratory factor 2, which activate mitochondrial transcription factor A. The latter drives transcription and replication of mitochondrial DNA.”

 

Jornayvaz, F. R., & Shulman, G. I. (2010). Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. Essays In Biochemistry, 47, 1-15. doi: 10.1042/bse0470069

 

[11] Recent progress toward hydrogen medicine: Potential of molecular hydrogen for preventative and therapeutic applications

“H2 shows not only effects against oxidative stress, but also various anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. H2 prevented the decline of the mitochondrial membrane potential. This suggested that H2 protected mitochondria from OH. Along with this protective effect, H2 also prevented a decrease in the cellular level of ATP synthesized in mitochondria. The fact that H2 protected mitochondria and nuclear DNA provided evidence that H2 penetrated most membranes and diffused into organelles.”

 

Ohta, S. (2011). Recent progress toward hydrogen medicine: Potential of molecular hydrogen for preventative and therapeutic applications. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 17(22), 2241-2252. doi: 10.2174/138161211797052664

 

[12] Exercise, GLUT4, and skeletal muscle glucose uptake

 

“Exercise training is the most potent stimulus to increase skeletal muscle GLUT4 expression, an effect that may partly contribute to improved insulin action and glucose disposal and enhanced muscle glycogen storage following exercise training in health and disease.”

 

Richter, E. A., & Hargreaves, M. (2013). Exercise, GLUT4, and skeletal muscle glucose uptake. Physiological Reviews, 93(3), 993-1017. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00038.2012

 

[13] Glycogen availability and skeletal muscle adaptations with endurance and resistance exercise

 

“Glycogen availability is essential to power ATP resynthesis during high intensity exercise which relies heavily on glycogenolysis. Furthermore, it has been well documented that the capability of skeletal muscle to exercise is impaired when the glycogen store is reduced to a certain level, even when there is sufficient amount of other fuels available.”

 

Knuiman, P., Hopman, M. T., & Mensink, M. (2015). Glycogen availability and skeletal muscle adaptations with endurance and resistance exercise. Nutrition & Metabolism, 12(59), 1-11. doi: 10.1186/s12986-015-0055-9

 

[14] Dietary carbohydrate, muscle glycogen, and power output during rowing training

 

“We conclude that a diet with 10 g carbohydrate.kg body mass-1.day-1 promotes greater muscle glycogen content and greater power output during training than a diet containing 5 g carbohydrate.kg body mass-1.day-1 over 4 wk of intense twice-daily rowing training.”

 

Simonsen, J. C., Sherman, W. M., Lamb, D. R., Dernbach, A. R., Doyle, J. A., & Strauss, R. (1991). Dietary carbohydrate, muscle glycogen, and power output during rowing training. Journal of Applied Physiology, 70(4), 1500-1505. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2055827

 

[15] Hydrogen improves glycemic control in type1 diabetic animal model by promoting glucose uptake into skeletal muscle

 

“Our study demonstrates that H2 stimulates Glut4 translocation and glucose uptake into skeletal muscle and may be a novel therapeutic alternative to insulin in T1DM that can be administered orally.”

 

Amitani, H., Asakawa, A., Cheng, K., Amitani, M., Kaimoto, K., Nakano, M., . . . Inui, A. (2013). Hydrogen improves glycemic control in type1 diabetic animal model by promoting glucose uptake into skeletal muscle. PLOS ONE, 8(1), 1-14. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053913

 

[16] Poorly understood aspects of striated muscle contraction

 

“Binding of ATP to the myosin motor domain first causes a structural change with a swing of the myosin lever arm (a “recovery stroke,” bottom that prepares the myosin head for executing a force-generating power stroke upon the next binding to actin.

 

Månsson, A., Rassier, D., & Tsiavaliaris, G. (2015). Poorly understood aspects of striated muscle contraction. BioMed Research International, 2015(245154), 1-28. doi: 10.1155/2015/245154

 

[17] Therapeutic effects of hydrogen saturated saline on rat diabetic model and insulin resistant model via reduction of oxidative stress

 

“Hydrogen saturated saline showed great efficiency in improving the insulin sensitivity and lowering blood glucose and lipids. Hydrogen saturated saline markedly attenuated the malondialdehyde level and elevated the levels of antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione. Hydrogen saturated saline may improve the insulin resistance and alleviate the symptoms of diabetes mellitus by reducing the oxidative stress and enhancing the anti-oxidant system”

 

Wang, Q., Zha, X., Kang, Z., Xu, M., Huang, Q., & Zou, D. (2012). Therapeutic effects of hydrogen saturated saline on rat diabetic model and insulin resistant model via reduction of oxidative stress. Chinese Medical Journal, 125(9), 1633-1637. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22800834

 

[18] Insulin effects in muscle and adipose tissue

 

“(1) Carbohydrate metabolism: (a) it increases the rate of glucose transport across the cell membrane, (b) it increases the rate of glycolysis by increasing hexokinase and 6-phosphofructokinase activity, (c) it stimulates the rate of glycogen synthesis and decreases the rate of glycogen breakdown. (3) Protein metabolism: (a) it increases the rate of transport of some amino acids into tissues, (b) it increases the rate of protein synthesis in muscle, adipose tissue, liver, and other tissues, (c) it decreases the rate of protein degradation in muscle (and perhaps other tissues). These insulin effects serve to encourage the synthesis of carbohydrate, fat and protein, therefore, insulin can be considered to be an anabolic hormone.”

 

Dimitriadis, G., Mitrou, P., Lambadiari, V., Maratou, E., & Raptis, S. S. (2011). Insulin effects in muscle and adipose tissue. Diabetes research and clinical practice, 93(Suppl1), 52-59. doi: 10.1016/S0168-8227(11)70014-6

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