Performance: Discover Rapid Recovery

Elevating Hydration 

Water is absolutely essential to survival. While the body is comprised of anywhere between 45-75% water (the average adult’s body is approximately 60% water), the muscles contain between 70-75% water; just a 1-2% body mass loss of water causes symptoms of dehydration, contributing to both physical and cognitive performance declines.  The physically taxing nature of elite athletic training, places athletes at risk of dehydration given the large percentage of water that is lost before, during, and after practice. Frequent and ample hydration is imperative, especially for athletes, as water not only helps maintain optimal performance, but also promotes healthy plasma volumes, and reduces the likelihood of heat stress/exhaustion and heat stroke.  As such, a growing body of scientific literature points to H2 as an ideal method of staying hydrated from the inside out. At the cellular level, H2 has the capacity to reduce the most toxic free radical, (hydroxyl radical) into water, ,  while simultaneously raising the cell’s own antioxidant system through activation of the Nrf2 pathway, further reducing excessive free radicals which cause disruption in cell signaling (however, only when found in excess as excess supplies will lead to oxidative stress). Additionally, with the byproduct of the Nrf2 pathway also breaking down into water, H2’s powerful hydrating properties are remarkable.

 

Delaying Acidosis

While years of daily physical conditioning and training have primed athletes to endure the long hours of high intensity exercise, once muscular burn sets in, they have no choice but to stop until it subsides. Though the burning sensation may be temporary, the lost practice time is critical and over the course of a season can add up, making the difference between that championship victory or loss. Following prolonged bouts of intense exercise, the build-up of acidosis (an excessive state of acidity in the body) causes the burn, subsequent muscle fatigue and breathlessness experienced by many athletes. ,  However, H2 has significant alkalizing effects, counteracting and delaying the onset of acidosis and preventing the successive burning sensation in the muscles. 

 

Enhancing ATP Production

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of life, which is responsible for providing energy for most biological processes, is found within the mitochondria.  ATP fuels the various organs of the body, including the muscles.18 Thus, higher amounts of mitochondria within the body will generate more ATP, providing athletes with what seems like a limitless supply of natural energy. In fact, H2 upregulates the expression of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α (PGC-1a),  a gene that activates the production of mitochondria (a process called “mitochondrial biogenesis”).  Of note, given their strenuous training regimens, athletes are prone to higher concentrations of free radicals within their bodies, specifically, reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are produced in the mitochondria. In excess, ROS can damage and disrupt proper mitochondrial functioning, limiting overall ATP production.  However, H2 has the power to neutralize these toxic ROS levels and prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and allowing for more efficient ATP production.  By increasing the total amount of mitochondria and preventing mitochondrial dysfunction, H2 has the capacity to naturally boost the body’s energy supply, maximizing energy efficiency and creating an abundant supply of fuel to their muscles for rapid recovery.  

 

 

Neutralizing Oxidative stress and Inflammation 

High intensity exercise can cause severe inflammation and oxidative stress in athletes, eliciting severe muscle soreness in athletes.  Following intense training, the muscles develop micro-tears eliciting a natural inflammatory response, activated to restore and promote healing. However, it is when this inflammation becomes “chronic” (often a result of over-training) that it provokes damage and the symptoms of delayed onset muscle soreness.  This can seriously impede performance, presenting a major obstacle in an athlete’s progress. H2’s anti-inflammatory mechanisms neutralize the subsequent oxidative stress and inflammation, promoting a speedy recovery from muscle soreness and allowing athletes to persistently push their limits. 

Improving Insulin Sensitivity and Glut4 Expression 

As mentioned earlier, athletes’ arduous training schedules increases the oxygenation required to fuel the muscles, leading to excess free radical formation and placing them at risk for the harmful damages that occur as a result of oxidative stress.  This state of oxidative stress has been shown to diminish the expression of Glut4, a substance that allows for more efficient storage of dietary carbohydrates and thus more long-term energy supply. When food is consumed, carbohydrates are converted into glucose (sugar), which is then stored as glycogen. During exercise, this glycogen is broken down into a useable energy source called ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and serves as the body’s direct energy supply.  Insufficient glycogen and ATP supplies limit the length of time an athlete can perform at optimal levels, reducing overall endurance.  To prevent ATP depletion, athletes may consume diets high in carbohydrates, resulting in larger glycogen stores and allowing endurance muscles (type I muscles) to perform longer.  In turn, by increasing the expression of Glut4, H2 increases the available fuel – dramatically boosting the muscle fuel stores that allow greater involvement of muscle fibers to take place during exercise and  amplifying power.  Additionally, H2 also promotes ATP production by increasing insulin sensitivity. Similar to the Glut4 gene, more efficient insulin sensitivity promotes effective glycogen storage within the body, yielding a much higher supply of muscle fuel.  Thus, H2 effectively enhances performance by activating the systems in charge of fueling the muscles and enabling athletes to get back on the court in no time!

Optimizing Sleep Quality

Along with physical conditioning and consuming a well-balanced, nutrient dense diet, sleep plays a critical role in athletic performance and recovery.  Exercise, especially long hours of high intensity training, causes both mental and physical exhaustion. Adequate sleep will ensure the necessary restoration and repair required to push past the limits and reach new heights no matter what athletic endeavor an athlete pursues. However, despite such clear-cut evidence, athletes continue to report lower quality sleep when compared to same age,  non-athlete peers, placing them at greater risk for reduced physical and emotional recovery.  Numerous factors have been associated with poor sleep quality, including increased cortisol levels, greater oxidative stress, and reduced levels of the neurochemical BDNF. Whatever the underlying reasons contributing to an athlete’s sleep disturbance, H2’s powerful antioxidant mechanisms work to counteract these variables by increasing BDNF, neutralizing oxidative stress, and significantly lowering cortisol levels – leaving athletes restored and refreshed to go all out each day without the fear of burnout or over-exhaustion.
 

H2 will help you discover rapid recovery by…

References

[1] The hydration equation: Update on water balance and cognitive performance

 

“Although it is often overlooked as an essential nutrient, water is vital for life as it serves several critical functions. Total body water comprises approximately 45–75% of a person’s body weight. Muscle mass is 70–75% water, while water in fat tissue can vary between 10 and 40%. Water acts as a transporter of nutrients, regulates body temperature, lubricates joints and internal organs, provides structure to cells and tissues, and can help preserve cardiovascular function. Water consumption may also facilitate weight management. Water deficits can impact physical performance, and recent research suggests that cognitive performance may also be impacted. The thirst sensation is triggered with a body water loss of 1–2%; a range where physical and cognitive performance may decline.”

Riebl, S. K., & Davy, B. M. (2013). The Hydration Equation: Update on water balance and cognitive performance. ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal, 17(6), 21–28. doi: 10.1249/FIT.0b013e3182a9570f

 

[2] Fluids and hydration in prolonged endurance performance

 

“Maintaining proper hydration before, during, and after training and competition will help reduce fluid loss, maintain performance, lower submaximal exercise heart rate, maintain plasma volume, and reduce heat stress, heat exhaustion, and possibly heat stroke.”

 

Duvillard, S. P., Braun, W. A., Markofski, M., Beneke, R., & Leithäuser, R. (2004). Fluids and hydration in prolonged endurance performance. Nutrition, 20(7-8), 651-656. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2004.04.011

 

 

[3] Hydrogen-rich saline inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation and attenuates experimental acute pancreatitis in mice

“Compared with other known exogenous antioxidants, hydrogen molecule can selectively quench hydroxyl radical forming water due to the unique molecular structure and chemical property, meanwhile without excessively interfering the physiological roles of the beneficial ROS like superoxide anions”

Ren, J.-D., Ma, J., Hou, J., Xiao, W.-J., Jin, W.-H., Wu, J., & Fan, K.-H. (2014). Hydrogen-rich saline inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation and attenuates experimental acute pancreatitis in mice. Mediators of Inflammation, 2014(930894) 1-9. doi: 10.1155/2014/930894

[4] Protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline on ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat skin flap

“H2 was reported as a new antioxidant and a selective scavenger of ·OH effective in various organs H2 can convert hydroxyl into water (H2+·OH→H2O+·H). Because H2 is electronically neutral and a small molecule, it should easily penetrate the cellular and intracellular membranes that are normally barriers preventing water-soluble antioxidants from entering cells and organelles, such as the mitochondria, a major source of ROS production.”

Zhao, L., Wang, Y., Qin, S., Ma, X., Sun, X., Wang, M., & Zhong, R. (2013). Protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline on ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat skin flap. Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B, 14(5), 382–391. doi: 10.1631/jzus.B1200317

[5] Molecular hydrogen attenuates hypoxia/reoxygenation injury of intrahepatic cholangiocytes by activating Nrf2 expression

“Our study revealed that H2 activated NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and downstream cytoprotective protein expression.  In conclusion, our study shows that H2 protects intrahepatic cholangiocytes from hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis in vitro or in vivo, and this phenomenon may depend on activating Nrf2 expression.”

Yu, J., Zhang, W., Zhang, R., Jiang, G., Tang, H., Ruan, X., . . . Lu, B. (2015). Molecular hydrogen attenuates hypoxia/reoxygenation injury of intrahepatic cholangiocytes by activating Nrf2 expression. Toxicology Letters, 238(3), 11-19. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2015.08.010

[6] Activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant response pathway increases IL-8 expression

“Oxidant stress can initiate or enhance inflammatory responses during tissue injury, possibly through activation of redox-sensitive chemokines. Because the transcription factor Nrf2 (NF-E2-related factor 2) is responsive to oxidative stress, and induces expression of cytoprotective and antioxidant genes that attenuate tissue injury, we postulated that Nrf2 may also regulate chemokine expression.”


Zhang, X., Chen, X., Song, H., Chen, H., & Rovin, B. (2005). Activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant response pathway increases IL-8 expression. European Journal of Immunology, 35(11), 3258-3267. doi: 10.1002/eji.200526116

[7] Recent progress toward hydrogen medicine: Potential of molecular hydrogen for preventative and therapeutic applications

“We have proposed that molecular hydrogen (H2) has potential as a “novel” antioxidant in preventive and therapeutic applications H2 has a number of advantages as a potential antioxidant: H2 rapidly diffuses into tissues and cells, and it is mild enough neither to disturb metabolic redox reactions nor to affect reactive oxygen species (ROS) that function in cell signaling, thereby, there should be little adverse effects of consuming H2. As the first step in generating persistent ROS, the majority of superoxide anion radicals (●O2-) are generated in mitochondria by electron leakage from the electron transport chain. Superoxide dismutase converts to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is metabolized by glutathione peroxidase or catalase to generate water (H2O).”

Ohta, S. (2011). Recent progress toward hydrogen medicine: Potential of molecular hydrogen for preventative and therapeutic applications. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 17(22), 2241-2252. doi: 10.2174/138161211797052664

[8] Lactate: Not guilty as charged

“When the ATP demands of exercise are being met by aerobic metabolism (called mitochondrial respiration), the accumulated protons are used in important aspects of cell metabolism. However, during very intense exercise (above steady state or during high-intensity resistance training), an accumulation of protons occurs in the muscle due to a much greater involvement of the phosphagen and glycolytic energy systems providing ATP for the muscle contraction. Robergs et al. (2004) biochemically explain and illustrate (with chemical structure reactions) in their article how the hydrolysis of ATP supplied from the phosphagen and glycolygic energy systems is the source of the increased proton accumulation in the cell, and thus THE CAUSE of acidosis (the burn).”

Lactate: Not Gilty as Charged. (n.d.). Retrieved March 13, 2017, from http://www.unm.edu/~lkravitz/Article%20folder/lactate.html

[9] Hyperventilation as a strategy for improved repeated sprint performance

“In conclusion, hyperventilation implemented during recovery intervals of repeated sprint pedaling attenuated performance decrements in later exercise bouts that was associated with substantial metabolic acidosis. The practical implication is that hyperventilation may have a strategic role for enhancing training effectiveness and may give an edge in performance outcomes.”

Sakamoto, A., Naito, H., & Chow, C. (2014). Hyperventilation as a strategy for improved repeated sprint performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28(4), 1119-1126. doi: 10.1519/jsc.0b013e3182a1fe5c

[10] Drinks with alkaline negative oxidative reduction potential improve exercise performance in physically active men and women: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial of efficacy and safety

“Due to the fact that negative oxidation reduction potential exhibits high pH, low dissolved oxygen and extremely high dissolved molecular hydrogen, it seems that increased non-volatile base indicators in the plasma for NORP group arose from ingestion of the alkaline drink. Due to the fact that the intestine is directly involved in acid and/or base generation, it appears that NORP has a strong alkalizing effect as a result of absorption of inorganic cations, while protective mechanisms of NORP results from active atomic hydrogen with high reductive ability. Drinks with alkaline negative oxidative reduction potential improve exercise performance in physically active men and women by reducing the rate of blood lactate accumulation during and after exercise, increase time to exhaustion, increase serum buffering capacity and not increase prevalence of adverse effects as compared to the control drink.”

Ostojić, S. (2011). Drinks with alkaline negative oxidative reduction potential improve exercise performance in physically active men and women: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial of efficacy and safety. Serbian Journal of Sports Sciences, 5(3), 83-89. Retrieved from http://www.sjss-sportsacademy.edu.rs/archive/details/full/drinks-with-alkaline-negative-oxidative-reduction-potential-improve-exercise-performance-in-physically-active-men-and-women-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-cross-over-trial-of-efficacy-and-safety-223.html

[11] Hydrogen-rich water affected blood alkalinity in physically active men

“Intake of HRW significantly increased fasting arterial blood pH by 0.04 (95% confidence interval; 0.01 - 0.08; p < 0.001), and postexercise pH by 0.07 (95% confidence interval; 0.01 - 0.10; p = 0.03) after 14 days of intervention. Fasting bicarbonates were significantly higher in the HRW trial after the administration regimen as compared with the preadministration (30.5 ± 1.9 mEq/L vs. 28.3 ± 2.3 mEq/L; p < 0.0001). No volunteers withdrew before the end of the study, and no participant reported any vexatious side effects of supplementation. These results support the hypothesis that HRW administration is safe and may have an alkalizing effect in young physically active men.”

Ostojic, S. M., & Stojanovic, M. D. (2014). Hydrogen-rich water affected blood alkalinity in physically active men. Research in Sports Medicine, 22(1), 49-60. doi: 10.1080/15438627.2013.852092.

[12] Serum alkalinization and hydrogen-rich water in healthy men ​

“Intake of HRW formulation for 1 week increased fasting and postexercise blood pH in healthy volunteers with no adverse effects reported. Evidence confirmed previous animal studies that suggested that HRW may provide some benefits as a neutralizing agent”

Ostojic, S. M. (2012). Serum alkalinization and hydrogen-rich water in healthy men. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 87(5), 501-502. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2012.02.008 

[13] Simulating the physiology of athletes during endurance sports events: Modelling human energy conversion and metabolism

“Physical exercise affects human physiology at multiple scales. The physical work done by athletes is associated with force exertion, temperature changes in the whole body, sweat excretion and increased uptake of oxygen, water and food, all measurable at the whole body level. At the cellular scale, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis energizes the interaction of actin and myosin molecules in the sarcomeres of the muscle cells.”

Van Beek, J. H. G. M., Supandi, F., Gavai, A. K., de Graaf, A. A., Binsl, T. W., & Hettling, H. (2011). Simulating the physiology of athletes during endurance sports events: Modelling human energy conversion and metabolism. Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences, 369(1954), 4295–4315. doi: 10.1098/rsta.2011.0166

[14] Molecular hydrogen stimulates the gene expression of transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α to enhance fatty acid metabolism

“In wild-type mice fed the fatty diet, H2-water improved the level of plasma triglycerides and extended their average of lifespan. H2 induces expression of the PGC-1α gene, followed by stimulation of the PPARα pathway that regulates FGF21, and the fatty acid and steroid metabolism.”

Kamimura, N. Ichimaya, H. Iuchi, K. & Ohta, S. (2016). Molecular hydrogen stimulates the gene expression of transcriptional coactivator PGC-1a to enhance fatty acid metabolism. NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease, 2(16008), 1-8. doi: 10.1038/npjamd.2016.8

[15] Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis

“PGC-1α (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α) is a co-transcriptional regulation factor that induces mitochondrial biogenesis by activating different transcription factors, including nuclear respiratory factor 1 and nuclear respiratory factor 2, which activate mitochondrial transcription factor A. The latter drives transcription and replication of mitochondrial DNA.”

Jornayvaz, F. R., & Shulman, G. I. (2010). Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. Essays In Biochemistry, 47, 1-15. doi: 10.1042/bse0470069

[16] Oxidative stress biomarkers responses to physical overtraining: Implications for diagnosis

“In conclusion, overtraining induces a marked response of oxidative stress biomarkers which, in some cases, was proportional to training load, suggesting that they may serve as a tool for overtraining diagnosis.”

Margonis, K., Fatouros, I. G., Jamurtas, A. Z., Nikolaidis, M. G., Douroudos, I., Chatzinikolaou, A., . . . Kouretas, D. (2007). Oxidative stress biomarkers responses to physical overtraining: Implications for diagnosis. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 43(6), 901-910. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2007.05.022

[17] Altered oxidative stress in overtrained athletes

“These results suggest that increased oxidative stress has a role in the pathophysiology of overtraining syndrome. The attenuated responses of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity to exercise in the overtrained state could be related to an inability to perform exercise effectively and impaired adaptation to exercise.”

Tanskanen, M., Atalay, M., & Uusitalo, A. (2010). Altered oxidative stress in overtrained athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(3), 309-317. doi: 10.1080/02640410903473844

[18] How mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species

“This ROS production contributes to mitochondrial damage in a range of pathologies and is also important in redox signalling from the organelle to the rest of the cell”

Murphy, M. (2009). How mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species. Biochemical Journal, 417(1), 1-13. doi: 10.1042/bj20081386

[19] Recent progress toward hydrogen medicine: Potential of molecular hydrogen for preventative and therapeutic applications

“H2 shows not only effects against oxidative stress, but also various anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. H2 prevented the decline of the mitochondrial membrane potential. This suggested that H2 protected mitochondria from OH. Along with this protective effect, H2 also prevented a decrease in the cellular level of ATP synthesized in mitochondria. The fact that H2 protected mitochondria and nuclear DNA provided evidence that H2 penetrated most membranes and diffused into organelles.”

Ohta, S. (2011). Recent progress toward hydrogen medicine: Potential of molecular hydrogen for preventative and therapeutic applications. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 17(22), 2241-2252. doi: 10.2174/138161211797052664

[20] Insights into the molecular etiology of exercise-induced inflammation: Opportunities for optimizing performance

“The inflammatory response associated with EIMD is presented with emphasis in leukocyte accumulation through mechanisms that are largely coordinated by pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines released either by injured muscle itself or other cells… are discussed with respect to athletic performance. Specifically, the mechanisms leading to performance deterioration and development of muscle soreness.”

Fatouros, I., & Jamurtas, A. (2016). Insights into the molecular etiology of exercise-induced inflammation: Opportunities for optimizing performance. Journal of Inflammation Research, 9, 175-186. doi: 10.2147/jir.s114635

[21] Mechanical loading and injury induce human myotubes to release neutrophil chemoattractants

“Skeletal muscle cells after mechanical loading and injury are an important source of soluble factors that differentially influence neutrophil chemotaxis and the stages of neutrophil-derived reactive oxygen species production.”

Tsivitse, S. K. (2004). Mechanical loading and injury induce human myotubes to release neutrophil chemoattractants. American Journal of Physiology: Cell Physiology, 288(3) 72-91. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00237.2004

[22] Exercise-induced oxidative stress: Cellular mechanisms and impact on muscle force production

“Interestingly, low and physiological levels of reactive oxygen species are required for normal force production in skeletal muscle, but high levels of reactive oxygen species promote contractile dysfunction resulting in muscle weakness and fatigue. Ongoing research continues to probe the mechanisms by which oxidants influence skeletal muscle contractile properties and to explore interventions capable of protecting muscle from oxidant-mediated dysfunction.”

Powers, S. K., & Jackson, M. J. (2008). Exercise-induced oxidative stress: Cellular mechanisms and impact on muscle force production. Physiological Reviews, 88(4), 1243–1276. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00031.2007

[23] Muscle soreness-induced reduction in force generation is accompanied by increased nitric oxide content and DNA damage in human skeletal muscle

“This is the first demonstration that muscle soreness-induced decrease in maximal force generation…”

Radák, Z., Pucsok, J., Mecseki, S., Csont, T., & Ferdinandy, P. (1999). Muscle soreness-induced reduction in force generation is accompanied by increased nitric oxide content and DNA damage in human skeletal muscle. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 26(7-8), 1059-1063. doi: 10.1016/s0891-5849(98)00309-8

[24] Hemorheological disturbances in the overtraining syndrome

“These findings suggest that the feeling of heavy legs in overtrained athletes are related to hemorheologic disturbances. In the light of the recent concept explaining this syndrome by a mild chronic inflammatory reaction”

Varlet, E. M., Maso, F., Lac, G., & Brun, J. F. (n.d.). Hemorheological disturbances in the overtraining syndrome. Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation, 3(3-4), 211-218. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15258345.

[25] Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: A review of clinical and experimental studies

“In the clinic, oral administration of H(2)-saturated water is reported to improve lipid and glucose metabolism in subjects with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance; promising results have also been obtained in reducing inflammation in haemodialysis patients and treating metabolic syndrome. These studies suggest H(2) has selective antioxidant properties, and can exert antiapoptotic, antiinflammatory and antiallergy effects.

Hong, Y., Chen, S., & Zhang, J. (2010). Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: A review of clinical and experimental studies. Journal of International Medical Research, 38(6), 1893-1903. doi: 10.1177/147323001003800602

[26] Molecular hydrogen as a preventive and therapeutic medical gas: Initiation, development and potential of hydrogen medicine

“The numerous publications on its biological and medical benefits revealed that H2 reduces oxidative stress not only by direct reactions with strong oxidants, but also indirectly by regulating various gene expressions. Moreover, by regulating the gene expressions, H2 functions as an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic, and stimulates energy metabolism.”

Ohta, S. (2014). Molecular hydrogen as a preventive and therapeutic medical gas: Initiation, development and potential of hydrogen medicine. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 144(1), 1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2014.04.006

[27] A review of hydrogen as a new medical therapy

“In the past few years many initial and subsequent clinical studies have demonstrated that hydrogen can act as an important physiological regulatory factor to cells and organs on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and other protective effects. So far several delivery methods applied in these studies have proved to be available and convenient, including inhalation, drinking hydrogen-dissolved water and injection with hydrogen-saturated saline.”

Zhang, J., Liu, C., Zhou, L., Qu, K., Wang, R., Tai, M., . . . Wang, Z. (2012). A Review of hydrogen as a new medical therapy. Hepatogastroenterology, 59(116), 1026-1032. doi: 10.5754/hge11883

[28] Oxidative stress impairs nuclear proteins binding to the insulin responsive element in the GLUT4 promoter

“Oxidative stress causes decreased GLUT4 expression, associated with impaired binding of nuclear proteins to the insulin responsive element in the GLUT4 promoter.”

Pessler, D., Rudich, A., & Bashan, N. (2001). Oxidative stress impairs nuclear proteins binding to the insulin responsive element in the GLUT4 promoter. Diabetologia, 44(12), 2156-2164. doi: 10.1007/s001250100024

[29] Exercise, GLUT4, and skeletal muscle glucose uptake

“Exercise training is the most potent stimulus to increase skeletal muscle GLUT4 expression, an effect that may partly contribute to improved insulin action and glucose disposal and enhanced muscle glycogen storage following exercise training in health and disease.”

Richter, E. A., & Hargreaves, M. (2013). Exercise, GLUT4, and skeletal muscle glucose uptake. Physiological Reviews, 93(3), 993-1017. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00038.2012

[30] Glycogen availability and skeletal muscle adaptations with endurance and resistance exercise

“Glycogen availability is essential to power ATP resynthesis during high intensity exercise which relies heavily on glycogenolysis. Furthermore, it has been well documented that the capability of skeletal muscle to exercise is impaired when the glycogen store is reduced to a certain level, even when there is sufficient amount of other fuels available.”

Knuiman, P., Hopman, M. T., & Mensink, M. (2015). Glycogen availability and skeletal muscle adaptations with endurance and resistance exercise. Nutrition & Metabolism, 12(59), 1-11. doi: 10.1186/s12986-015-0055-9

[31] Muscle energetics during explosive activities and potential effects of nutrition and training

“It is clear that performance during HIE can be improved by interventions that increase the capacity of anaerobic ATP production, suggesting that energetic constraints set a limit for performance during HIE.”

Sahlin, K. (2014). Muscle energetics during explosive activities and potential effects of nutrition and training

. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.z.), 44(Suppl 2), 167–173. doi: 10.1007/s40279-014-0256-9

[32] Muscle glycogen synthesis before and after exercise

“For optimal training performance, muscle glycogen stores must be replenished on a daily basis. For optimal training performance, muscle glycogen stores must be replenished on a daily basis. For the average endurance athlete, a daily carbohydrate consumption of 500 to 600g is required.”

Ivy, J. L. (1991). Muscle glycogen synthesis before and after exercise. Sports Medicine, 11(1), 6-19. doi: 10.2165/00007256-199111010-00002

[33] Hydrogen improves glycemic control in type1 diabetic animal model by promoting glucose uptake into skeletal muscle

“Our study demonstrates that H2 stimulates Glut4 translocation and glucose uptake into skeletal muscle and may be a novel therapeutic alternative to insulin in T1DM that can be administered orally.”

Amitani, H., Asakawa, A., Cheng, K., Amitani, M., Kaimoto, K., Nakano, M., . . . Inui, A. (2013). Hydrogen improves glycemic control in type1 diabetic animal model by promoting glucose uptake into skeletal muscle. PLOS ONE, 8(1), 1-14. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053913

[34] Therapeutic effects of hydrogen saturated saline on rat diabetic model and insulin resistant model via reduction of oxidative stress

“Hydrogen saturated saline showed great efficiency in improving the insulin sensitivity and lowering blood glucose and lipids. Hydrogen saturated saline markedly attenuated the malondialdehyde level and elevated the levels of antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione. Hydrogen saturated saline may improve the insulin resistance and alleviate the symptoms of diabetes mellitus by reducing the oxidative stress and enhancing the anti-oxidant system”

Wang, Q., Zha, X., Kang, Z., Xu, M., Huang, Q., & Zou, D. (2012). Therapeutic effects of hydrogen saturated saline on rat diabetic model and insulin resistant model via reduction of oxidative stress. Chinese Medical Journal, 125(9), 1633-1637. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22800834

[35] Sleep in elite athletes and nutritional interventions to enhance sleep

“Sleep has numerous important physiological and cognitive functions that may be particularly important to elite athletes.”

Halson, S. L. (2014). Sleep in elite athletes and nutritional interventions to enhance sleep. Sports Medicine, 44(Suppl1), 13-23. doi: 10.1007/s40279-014-0147-0

[36] Sleep in elite athletes and nutritional interventions to enhance sleep

“Recent evidence, as well as anecdotal information, suggests that athletes may experience a reduced quality and/or quantity of sleep.” 

Halson, S. L. (2014). Sleep in elite athletes and nutritional interventions to enhance sleep. Sports Medicine, 44(S1), 13-23. doi: 10.1007/s40279-014-0147-0

[37] Sleep quality, mood and performance: A study of elite Brazilian volleyball athletes

“This investigation analyzed the relationships between sleep quality, mood, and game results in the elite athletes participating in Brazilian volleyball competitions. Research indicates that better sleep quality, besides homeostatic, neuroendocrine and immune regulation influence, is an important element contributing to better physical and emotional recovery of the athlete.”

Brandt, R., Bevilacqua, G. G., & Andrade, A. (2016). Perceived sleep quality, mood states, and their relationship with performance among Brazilian elite athletes during a competitive period. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 15, 601-605. doi: 10.1519/jsc.0000000000001551

[38] Hydrogen-rich saline protects against spinal cord injury in rats

“We observed that administration of hydrogen-rich saline decreased the number of apoptotic cells, suppressed oxidative stress, and improved locomotor functions. In conclusion, hydrogen-rich saline reduced acute spinal cord contusion injury, possibly by reduction of oxidative stress and elevation of BDNF.”

Chen, C., Chen, Q., Mao, Y., Xu, S., Xia, C., Shi, X., . . . Sun, X. (2010). Hydrogen-rich saline protects against spinal cord injury in rats. Neurochemical Research, 35(7), 1111-1118. doi: 10.1007/s11064-010-0162-y

[39] Molecular hydrogen reduces LPS-induced neuroinflammation and promotes recovery from sickness behaviour in mice

“Twenty-four hours after systemic administration of LPS, most behavioural parameters (total resting time during the light phase, and the circadian distribution of spontaneous locomotor activity and resting) were already restored in molecular hydrogen-enriched H-ERW mice, but not in controls. Consistently, the behavioural parameters were associated with a lower upregulation of IL-1β and IL-6 (still significantly above the expression levels in shams), and with an upregulation of BDNF only in H-ERW-treated mice.”

Spulber, S., Edoff, K., Hong, L., Morisawa, S., Shirahata, S., & Ceccatelli, S. (2012). Molecular hydrogen reduces LPS-induced neuroinflammation and promotes recovery from sickness behaviour in mice. PLOS ONE, 7(7), 1-12. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042078

[40] Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals

“Hydrogen selectively reduces the hydroxyl radical, the most toxic free radical, and effectively protects cells. It does not react with free radicals that have physiological benefits, making it an incredibly effective therapy to neutralize acute oxidative stress.”

Ohsawa, I., Ishikawa, M., Takahashi, K., Watanabe, M., Nishimaki, K., Yamagata, K., . . . Ohta, S. (2007). Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Nature Medicine, 13(6), 688-694. doi: 10.1038/nm1577

[41] Antioxidant supplementation and immunoendocrine responses to prolonged exercise

“These results suggest that 4 wk of antioxidant supplementation may blunt the cortisol response to a single 2.5-h bout of prolonged exercise independently of changes in oxidative stress or plasma IL-6 concentration.”

Davison, G., Gleeson, M., & Phillips, S. (2007). Antioxidant supplementation and immunoendocrine responses to prolonged exercise. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39(4), 645-652. doi: 10.1249/mss.0b013e318031303d

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