Performance: Enhance Your Endurance

Reducing the Muscular Burn Felt During & After Exercise 

While peak athletes have conditioned their bodies to endure long hours of high intensity training, once muscular burn sets in, they have no choice but to stop until it subsides. This lost practice time is critical and over the course of a season can add up, making the difference between that championship victory or loss. Following prolonged bouts of intense exercise, the build-up of acidosis (an excessive state of acidity in the body) causes the burn and subsequent muscle fatigue  and the feeling of being out of breath  experienced by many athletes. However, H2 has significant alkalizing effects,  counteracting and delaying the onset of acidosis and preventing the successive burning sensation in the muscles and countering the feeling of being out of breath. With H2, athletes can avoid wasting precious practice time and go at all-out speeds and power for longer than ever before.

Improving Insulin Sensitivity & Increases Glut4 Expression 

Given their consistent day-to-day vigorous exercise protocols, the increases oxygenation required leads to excess free radical formation, placing them at risk for the harm and damages that occur as a result of oxidative stress.  This state of oxidative stress has been shown to diminish the expression of Glut4,  a gene expression that allows for more efficient storage of dietary carbohydrates and thus more long-term energy supply.  When food is consumed, carbohydrates are converted into glucose (sugar), which is then stored as glycogen.  During exercise, this glycogen is broken down into a useable energy source called ATP (adenosine triphosphate),  and serves as the body’s direct energy supply.  Consequently, insufficient glycogen and ATP supplies limit the length of time an athlete can perform at optimal levels, reducing endurance.   To prevent ATP depletion athletes may consume diets high in carbohydrates, resulting in larger glycogen stores and allowing endurance muscles (type I muscles) to perform longer. However, implementing H2 has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and increase Glut4 expression,  while also eliminating the underlying oxidative stress  – each of which will contribute to increased glycogen stores. Thus, H2 dramatically elevates endurance by promoting the systems in charge of fueling the muscles and body with boundless energy. 

Preventing Mitochondrial Dysfunction 

As the energy powerhouse of our cells (responsible for ATP production), mitochondria are essential to an athlete’s performance. As noted earlier, athletes are prone to higher concentrations of free radicals within their bodies, specifically, reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are produced in the mitochondria.  In excess, ROS can damage and disrupt proper mitochondrial functioning, limiting overall ATP production.16  However, H2 has the power to neutralize these toxic ROS levels preventing mitochondrial dysfunction  and increase PGC-1a gene expression  triggering mitochondrial biogenesis,  allowing for more efficient ATP production, and in turn, improved endurance.  
 

H2 can enhance your endurance by…
References

[1] Lactate: Not guilty as charged

 

“When the ATP demands of exercise are being met by aerobic metabolism (called mitochondrial respiration), the accumulated protons are used in important aspects of cell metabolism. However, during very intense exercise (above steady state or during high-intensity resistance training), an accumulation of protons occurs in the muscle due to a much greater involvement of the phosphagen and glycolytic energy systems providing ATP for the muscle contraction. Robergs et al. (2004) biochemically explain and illustrate (with chemical structure reactions) in their article how the hydrolysis of ATP supplied from the phosphagen and glycolygic energy systems is the source of the increased proton accumulation in the cell, and thus THE CAUSE of acidosis (the burn).”

 

Lactate: Not Gilty as Charged. (n.d.). Retrieved March 13, 2017, from http://www.unm.edu/~lkravitz/Article%20folder/lactate.html

 

[2] Hyperventilation as a strategy for improved repeated sprint performance

 

“In conclusion, hyperventilation implemented during recovery intervals of repeated sprint pedaling attenuated performance decrements in later exercise bouts that was associated with substantial metabolic acidosis. The practical implication is that hyperventilation may have a strategic role for enhancing training effectiveness and may give an edge in performance outcomes.”

 

Sakamoto, A., Naito, H., & Chow, C. (2014). Hyperventilation as a strategy for improved repeated sprint performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28(4), 1119-1126. doi: 10.1519/jsc.0b013e3182a1fe5c

 

[3] Drinks with alkaline negative oxidative reduction potential improve exercise performance in physically active men and women: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial of efficacy and safety

“Due to the fact that negative oxidation reduction potential exhibits high pH, low dissolved oxygen and extremely high dissolved molecular hydrogen, it seems that increased non-volatile base indicators in the plasma for NORP group arose from ingestion of the alkaline drink. Due to the fact that the intestine is directly involved in acid and/or base generation, it appears that NORP has a strong alkalizing effect as a result of absorption of inorganic cations, while protective mechanisms of NORP results from active atomic hydrogen with high reductive ability. Drinks with alkaline negative oxidative reduction potential improve exercise performance in physically active men and women by reducing the rate of blood lactate accumulation during and after exercise, increase time to exhaustion, increase serum buffering capacity and not increase prevalence of adverse effects as compared to the control drink.”

 

Ostojić, S. (2011). Drinks with alkaline negative oxidative reduction potential improve exercise performance in physically active men and women: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial of efficacy and safety. Serbian Journal of Sports Sciences, 5(3), 83-89. Retrieved from http://www.sjss-sportsacademy.edu.rs/archive/details/full/drinks-with-alkaline-negative-oxidative-reduction-potential-improve-exercise-performance-in-physically-active-men-and-women-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-cross-over-trial-of-efficacy-and-safety-223.html

 

[4] Hydrogen-rich water affected blood alkalinity in physically active men

“Intake of HRW significantly increased fasting arterial blood pH by 0.04 (95% confidence interval; 0.01 - 0.08; p < 0.001), and postexercise pH by 0.07 (95% confidence interval; 0.01 - 0.10; p = 0.03) after 14 days of intervention. Fasting bicarbonates were significantly higher in the HRW trial after the administration regimen as compared with the preadministration (30.5 ± 1.9 mEq/L vs. 28.3 ± 2.3 mEq/L; p < 0.0001). No volunteers withdrew before the end of the study, and no participant reported any vexatious side effects of supplementation. These results support the hypothesis that HRW administration is safe and may have an alkalizing effect in young physically active men.”

 

Ostojic, S. M., & Stojanovic, M. D. (2014). Hydrogen-rich water affected blood alkalinity in physically active men. Research in Sports Medicine, 22(1), 49-60. doi: 10.1080/15438627.2013.852092.

 

[5] Serum alkalinization and hydrogen-rich water in healthy men ​

“Intake of HRW formulation for 1 week increased fasting and postexercise blood pH in healthy volunteers with no adverse effects reported. Evidence confirmed previous animal studies that suggested that HRW may provide some benefits as a neutralizing agent”

 

Ostojic, S. M. (2012). Serum alkalinization and hydrogen-rich water in healthy men. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 87(5), 501-502. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2012.02.008 

 

[6] Exercise-induced oxidative stress: Cellular mechanisms and impact on muscle force production

 

“Interestingly, low and physiological levels of reactive oxygen species are required for normal force production in skeletal muscle, but high levels of reactive oxygen species promote contractile dysfunction resulting in muscle weakness and fatigue. Ongoing research continues to probe the mechanisms by which oxidants influence skeletal muscle contractile properties and to explore interventions capable of protecting muscle from oxidant-mediated dysfunction.”

 

POWERS, S. K., & JACKSON, M. J. (2008). Exercise-induced oxidative stress: Cellular mechanisms and impact on muscle force production. Physiological Reviews, 88(4), 1243–1276. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00031.2007

 

[7] Oxidative stress impairs nuclear proteins binding to the insulin responsive element in the GLUT4 promoter

 

“Oxidative stress causes decreased GLUT4 expression, associated with impaired binding of nuclear proteins to the insulin responsive element in the GLUT4 promoter.”

 

Pessler, D., Rudich, A., & Bashan, N. (2001). Oxidative stress impairs nuclear proteins binding to the insulin responsive element in the GLUT4 promoter. Diabetologia, 44(12), 2156-2164. doi: 10.1007/s001250100024

 

[8] Exercise, GLUT4, and skeletal muscle glucose uptake

 

“Exercise training is the most potent stimulus to increase skeletal muscle GLUT4 expression, an effect that may partly contribute to improved insulin action and glucose disposal and enhanced muscle glycogen storage following exercise training in health and disease.”

 

Richter, E. A., & Hargreaves, M. (2013). Exercise, GLUT4, and skeletal muscle glucose uptake. Physiological Reviews, 93(3), 993-1017. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00038.2012

 

[9] Muscle glycogen synthesis before and after exercise

 

“For optimal training performance, muscle glycogen stores must be replenished on a daily basis. For optimal training performance, muscle glycogen stores must be replenished on a daily basis. For the average endurance athlete, a daily carbohydrate consumption of 500 to 600g is required.”

 

Ivy, J. L. (1991). Muscle glycogen synthesis before and after exercise. Sports Medicine, 11(1), 6-19. doi: 10.2165/00007256-199111010-00002

 

[10] Glycogen availability and skeletal muscle adaptations with endurance and resistance exercise

 

“Glycogen availability is essential to power ATP resynthesis during high intensity exercise which relies heavily on glycogenolysis. Furthermore, it has been well documented that the capability of skeletal muscle to exercise is impaired when the glycogen store is reduced to a certain level, even when there is sufficient amount of other fuels available.”

 

Knuiman, P., Hopman, M. T., & Mensink, M. (2015). Glycogen availability and skeletal muscle adaptations with endurance and resistance exercise. Nutrition & Metabolism, 12(59), 1-11. doi: 10.1186/s12986-015-0055-9

 

[11] Muscle energetics during explosive activities and potential effects of nutrition and training

 

“It is clear that performance during HIE can be improved by interventions that increase the capacity of anaerobic ATP production, suggesting that energetic constraints set a limit for performance during HIE.”

 

Sahlin, K. (2014). Muscle energetics during explosive activities and potential effects of nutrition and training

. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.z.), 44(Suppl 2), 167–173. doi: 10.1007/s40279-014-0256-9

 

[12] Therapeutic effects of hydrogen saturated saline on rat diabetic model and insulin resistant model via reduction of oxidative stress

 

“Hydrogen saturated saline showed great efficiency in improving the insulin sensitivity and lowering blood glucose and lipids. Hydrogen saturated saline markedly attenuated the malondialdehyde level and elevated the levels of antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione. Hydrogen saturated saline may improve the insulin resistance and alleviate the symptoms of diabetes mellitus by reducing the oxidative stress and enhancing the anti-oxidant system”

 

Wang, Q., Zha, X., Kang, Z., Xu, M., Huang, Q., & Zou, D. (2012). Therapeutic effects of hydrogen saturated saline on rat diabetic model and insulin resistant model via reduction of oxidative stress. Chinese Medical Journal, 125(9), 1633-1637. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22800834

 

[13] Hydrogen improves glycemic control in type1 diabetic animal model by promoting glucose uptake into skeletal muscle

 

“Our study demonstrates that H2 stimulates Glut4 translocation and glucose uptake into skeletal muscle and may be a novel therapeutic alternative to insulin in T1DM that can be administered orally.”

 

Amitani, H., Asakawa, A., Cheng, K., Amitani, M., Kaimoto, K., Nakano, M., . . . Inui, A. (2013). Hydrogen improves glycemic control in type1 diabetic animal model by promoting glucose uptake into skeletal muscle. PLOS ONE, 8(1), 1-14. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053913

 

[14] Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: A review of clinical and experimental studies

“In the clinic, oral administration of H(2)-saturated water is reported to improve lipid and glucose metabolism in subjects with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance; promising results have also been obtained in reducing inflammation in haemodialysis patients and treating metabolic syndrome. These studies suggest H(2) has selective antioxidant properties, and can exert antiapoptotic, antiinflammatory and antiallergy effects.

 

Hong, Y., Chen, S., & Zhang, J. (2010). Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: A review of clinical and experimental studies. Journal of International Medical Research, 38(6), 1893-1903. doi: 10.1177/147323001003800602

 

[15] Mitochondrial free radical generation, oxidative stress, and aging

 

“Mitochondria have been described as "the powerhouses of the cell" because they link the energy-releasing activities of electron transport and proton pumping with the energy conserving process of oxidative phosphorylation, to harness the value of foods in the form of ATP. Such energetic processes are not without dangers, however, and the electron transport chain has proved to be somewhat "leaky." Such side reactions of the mitochondrial electron transport chain with molecular oxygen directly generate the superoxide anion radical (O2*-), which dismutates to form hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which can further react to form the hydroxyl radical (HO*).”

 

Cadenas, E., & Davies, K. J. (2000). Mitochondrial free radical generation, oxidative stress, and aging. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 29(3-4), 222-230. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11035250

 

[16] Oxidative stress increased respiration and generation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in ATP depletion, opening of mitochondrial permeability transition, and programmed cell death

 

“Oxidative stress increased mitochondrial electron transport, resulting in amplification of H(2)O(2) production, depletion of ATP, and cell death.”

 

Tiwari, B. S., Belenghi, B., & Levine, A. (2002). Oxidative stress increased respiration and generation of reactive oxygen species, resulting in ATP depletion, opening of mitochondrial permeability transition, and programmed cell death. Plant Physiology, 128(4), 1271–1281. doi: 10.1104/pp.010999

 

[17] Recent progress toward hydrogen medicine: Potential of molecular hydrogen for preventative and therapeutic applications

“H2 shows not only effects against oxidative stress, but also various anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. H2 prevented the decline of the mitochondrial membrane potential. This suggested that H2 protected mitochondria from OH. Along with this protective effect, H2 also prevented a decrease in the cellular level of ATP synthesized in mitochondria. The fact that H2 protected mitochondria and nuclear DNA provided evidence that H2 penetrated most membranes and diffused into organelles.”

 

Ohta, S. (2011). Recent progress toward hydrogen medicine: Potential of molecular hydrogen for preventative and therapeutic applications. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 17(22), 2241-2252. doi: 10.2174/138161211797052664

 

 

[18] Molecular hydrogen stimulates the gene expression of transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α to enhance fatty acid metabolism

 

“In wild-type mice fed the fatty diet, H2-water improved the level of plasma triglycerides and extended their average of lifespan. H2 induces expression of the PGC-1α gene, followed by stimulation of the PPARα pathway that regulates FGF21, and the fatty acid and steroid metabolism.”

 

Kamimura, N. Ichimaya, H. Iuchi, K. & Ohta, S. (2016). Molecular hydrogen stimulates the gene expression of transcriptional coactivator PGC-1a to enhance fatty acid metabolism. NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease, 2(16008), 1-8. doi: 10.1038/npjamd.2016.8

 

[19] Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis

“PGC-1α (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α) is a co-transcriptional regulation factor that induces mitochondrial biogenesis by activating different transcription factors, including nuclear respiratory factor 1 and nuclear respiratory factor 2, which activate mitochondrial transcription factor A. The latter drives transcription and replication of mitochondrial DNA.”

 

Jornayvaz, F. R., & Shulman, G. I. (2010). Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. Essays In Biochemistry, 47, 1-15. doi: 10.1042/bse0470069

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