Performance: Enhance Your Immunity

Neutralizing oxidative stress and inflammation

Exercise is one mechanism by which free radical formation is elevated. During high intensity training, the body requires a much greater oxygen supply, which increases the production of free radicals, or in this case, chemically reactive oxygen species (ROS) (approximately 4-5% of the total oxygen supply is converted to free radicals). While free radicals serve many important functions (including cell signaling), excess amounts lead to a state of oxidative stress (when the free radicals exceed the body’s antioxidant supply), posing a serious threat to various cellular processes that ultimately affect the body’s capacity to recover from strenuous activity.  This can increase the risk of picking up opportunistic infections such as the common cold and influenza. 

Furthermore, following intense exercise, cytokines (inflammatory markers) are also activated, increasing the resulting inflammation that occurs throughout the body, particularly in the muscles.  The combination of excessive oxidative stress and inflammation slow down the body’s ability to recover and build muscle. However, H2’s unique antioxidant properties have the power to counteract the excess amounts of oxidative stress and inflammation in the body, bringing the body back to a state of equilibrium.   By eliminating the harmful levels of oxidative stress and inflammation, H2 naturally strengthens the body’s immune system and reduces the likelihood of not just the common cold, but practically any healthy condition that could potentially stand in the way of your athletic training regimen.

Suppressing overactive NADPH oxidase during recovery

While inflammation is a naturally occurring physiological response to injury (helping with muscle repair, regeneration, and growth ), an exaggerated and prolonged response can occur as a consequence of inflammatory life style factors including intense physical exercise. The persistent training protocol required of elite athletes can thus lead to the over activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme (an enzyme which increases the production of free radicals ). The accumulation of free radicals will ultimately bring the body to a state of oxidative stress and further weaken the immune system.  H2’s powerful antioxidant properties has been evidenced in multiple studies to suppress or inhibit the over activation of NADPH oxidase activity leading to a stronger immune system.

 

  

Enhancing sleep quality

Sleep deprivation can seriously weaken the immune system, especially in athletes who’s training and traveling schedule increases their susceptibility to illness.   Athletes in particular are at greater risk of sleep problems, as research indicates that they exhibit higher cortisol levels , excessive oxidative stress and inflammation , and decreased concentrations of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) – each of which is highly correlated with impaired sleep quality . However, H2 has been shown to reduce cortisol   , neutralize oxidative stress and suppress inflammation , and elevate brain derived neurotrophic factor  – allowing athletes to optimize their sleep while simultaneously maximizing their immune system for peak performance. 
 

H2 improves your immune system by…
References

[1] Exercise-induced oxidative stress: Cellular mechanisms and impact on muscle force production

 

“Interestingly, low and physiological levels of reactive oxygen species are required for normal force production in skeletal muscle, but high levels of reactive oxygen species promote contractile dysfunction resulting in muscle weakness and fatigue. Ongoing research continues to probe the mechanisms by which oxidants influence skeletal muscle contractile properties and to explore interventions capable of protecting muscle from oxidant-mediated dysfunction.”

 

POWERS, S. K., & JACKSON, M. J. (2008). Exercise-induced oxidative stress: Cellular mechanisms and impact on muscle force production. Physiological Reviews, 88(4), 1243–1276. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00031.2007

 

[2] Immunological aspects of sport nutrition

 

“Prolonged bouts of exercise and heavy training regimens are associated with depression of immune system functions that can increase the risk of picking up opportunistic infections such as the common cold and influenza.”

 

Gleeson, M. (2015). Immunological aspects of sport nutrition. Immunology and Cell Biology, 94(2), 117-123. doi: 10.1038/icb.2015.109

 

[3] Eccentric exercise-induced delayed-onset muscle soreness and changes in markers of muscle damage and inflammation

 

“These results suggest that neutrophils can be mobilized into the circulation and migrate to the muscle tissue several hours after the eccentric exercise. There were also positive correlations between the exercise-induced increases in neutrophil migratory activity at 4 h and the increases in Mb at 48 h (r = 0.67, p < 0.05). These findings suggest that neutrophil mobilization and migration after exercise may be involved in the muscle damage and inflammatory processes.”

 

Kanda, K., Sugama, K., Hayashida, H., Sakuma, J., Kawakami, Y., Miura, S., . . . Suzuki, K. (2013). Eccentric exercise-induced delayed-onset muscle soreness and changes in markers of muscle damage and inflammation. Exercise immunology Review, 19, 72-85. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23977721

 

[4] A review of hydrogen as a new medical therapy

 

“In the past few years many initial and subsequent clinical studies have demonstrated that hydrogen can act as an important physiological regulatory factor to cells and organs on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and other protective effects. So far several delivery methods applied in these studies have proved to be available and convenient, including inhalation, drinking hydrogen-dissolved water and injection with hydrogen-saturated saline.”

 

Zhang, J., Liu, C., Zhou, L., Qu, K., Wang, R., Tai, M., . . . Wang, Z. (2012). A Review of hydrogen as a new medical therapy. Hepatogastroenterology, 59(116), 1026-1032. doi: 10.5754/hge11883

 

[5] Mechanisms of muscle injury, repair, and regeneration

 

“Evidence shows that muscle injuries that are caused by eccentric contractions result from direct mechanical damage to myofibrils. Many feaures in the injury-repair-regeneration cascade relate to the unregulated influx of calcium through membrane lesions, including: (i) activation of proteases and hydrolases that contribute muscle damage, (ii) activation of enzymes that drive the production of mitogens and motogens for muscle and immune cells involved in injury and repair, and (iii) enabling protein-protein interactions that promote membrane repair. Evidence is also presented to show that the myogenic program that is activated by acute muscle injury and the inflammatory process that follows are highly coordinated, with myeloid cells playing a central role in modulating repair and regeneration.”


Tidball, J. G. (2011). Mechanisms of muscle injury, repair, and regeneration. Comprehensive Physiology, 1(4), 2029-2062. doi: 10.1002/cphy.c100092

 

[6] NADPH oxidase 1 and its derived reactive oxygen species mediated tissue injury and repair

 

“Inflammation following injury is the essential process for tissue repair. Inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and macrophages are major source of ROS, which are needed for scavenging bacteria and necrotic tissue. As mentioned above, the activation of Nox1 and rapid production of ROS could be induced by inflammatory cytokines like IL-13 and interferon-γ”

 

Fu, X.-J., Peng, Y.-B., Hu, Y.-P., Shi, Y.-Z., Yao, M., & Zhang, X. (2014). NADPH Oxidase 1 and Its Derived Reactive Oxygen Species Mediated Tissue Injury and Repair. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2014(282854), 1-10. doi: 10.1155/2014/282854

 

[7] The role of oxidative stress in rhinovirus induced elaboration of IL-8 by respiratory epithelial cells

 

“These data suggest that RV stimulation of IL-8 in respiratory epithelium is mediated through production of oxidative species and the subsequent activation of NF-kappaB.”

 

Biagioli, M. C., Kaul, P., Singh, I., & Turner, R. B. (1999). The role of oxidative stress in rhinovirus induced elaboration of IL-8 by respiratory epithelial cells. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 26(3-4), 454-462. doi: 10.1016/s0891-5849(98)00233-0

 

[8] Consumption of hydrogen-rich water alleviates renal injury in spontaneous hypertensive rats

 

“Although treatment with HW had no significant effect on blood pressure, it significantly ameliorated renal injury in SHR. Treatment with HW lowered reactive oxygen species formation, upregulated the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-epoxide transferase, and catalase, and suppressed NADPH oxidase activity”

 

Xin, H., Zhang, B., Wu, Z., Hang, X., Xu, W., Ni, W., . . . Miao, X. (2014). Consumption of hydrogen-rich water alleviates renal injury in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 392(1-2), 117-124. doi: 10.1007/s11010-014-2024-4

 

[9] Molecular hydrogen suppresses FcepsilonRI-mediated signal transduction and prevents degranulation of mast cells

 

“We demonstrated that hydrogen attenuates phosphorylation of the FcepsilonRI-associated Lyn and its downstream signal transduction, which subsequently inhibits the NADPH oxidase activity and reduces the generation of hydrogen peroxide.”

 

Itoh, T., Fujita, Y., Ito, M., Masuda, A., Ohno, K., Ichihara, M., . . . Ito, M. (2009). Molecular hydrogen suppresses FcεRI-mediated signal transduction and prevents degranulation of mast cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 389(4), 651-656. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.09.047

 

[10] Sleep and athletic performance: The effects of sleep loss on exercise performance, and physiological and cognitive responses to exercise

 

“The effects of sleep loss on physiological responses to exercise also remain equivocal; however, it appears a reduction in sleep quality and quantity could result in an autonomic nervous system imbalance, simulating symptoms of the overtraining syndrome. Additionally, increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines following sleep loss could promote immune system dysfunction.”

 

Fullagar, H. H., Skorski, S., Duffield, R., Hammes, D., Coutts, A. J., & Meyer, T. (2015). Sleep and athletic performance: The effects of sleep loss on exercise performance, and physiological and cognitive responses to exercise. Sports Medicine, 45(2), 161-186. doi: 10.1007/s40279-014-0260-0

 

[11] Stress biomarkers, mood states, and sleep during a major competition: “Success” and “failure” athlete's profile of high-level swimmers

 

“The stress of the competition could trigger a negative mood profile and sleep disturbance which correspond to different responses of biomarkers related to the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, cortisol, sAA, and CgA.”

 

Chennaoui, M., Bougard, C., Drogou, C., Langrume, C., Miller, C., Gomez-Merino, D., & Vergnoux, F. (2016). Stress biomarkers, mood states, and sleep during a major competition: “Success” and “failure” athlete's profile of high-level swimmers. Frontiers in Physiology, 7(94), 1-10. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2016.00094

 

 

[12] Inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants contribute to selected sleep quality and cardiometabolic health relationships: A cross-sectional study

 

“Our results provide initial evidence of a potential role for inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants in the pathway between poor sleep quality-cardiometabolic decline.”

 

Kanagasabai, T., & Ardern, C. I. (2015). Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidants Contribute to Selected Sleep Quality and Cardiometabolic Health Relationships: A Cross-Sectional Study. Mediators of Inflammation, 2015(824589), 1-11. doi: 10.1155/2015/824589

 

 

[13] BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation

 

“Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia and sleep deprivation (SD). Using a biphasic stress model as explanation approach, we discuss here the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. In the long-term it leads to sleep disturbance and depression as well as decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute stress like SD can be used as therapeutic intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels.”

 

Schmitt, K., Holsboer-Trachsler, E., & Eckert, A. (2016). BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation. Annals of Medicine, 48(1-2), 42-51. doi: 10.3109/07853890.2015.1131327

 

 

[14] Antioxidant supplementation and immunoendocrine responses to prolonged exercise

 

“These results suggest that 4 wk of AO supplementation may blunt the cortisol response to a single 2.5-h bout of prolonged exercise independently of changes in oxidative stress or plasma IL-6 concentration, but it is not effective at modulating the exercise-induced neutrophilia or depression of neutrophil function.”

 

Davison, G., Gleeson, M., & Phillips, S. (2007). Antioxidant supplementation and immunoendocrine responses to prolonged exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39(4), 645-652. doi: 10.1249/mss.0b013e318031303d

 

[15] Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals

“Hydrogen selectively reduces the hydroxyl radical, the most toxic free radical, and effectively protects cells. It does not react with free radicals that have physiological benefits, making it an incredibly effective therapy to neutralize acute oxidative stress.”

 

Ohsawa, I., Ishikawa, M., Takahashi, K., Watanabe, M., Nishimaki, K., Yamagata, K., . . . Ohta, S. (2007). Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Nature Medicine, 13(6), 688-694. doi: 10.1038/nm1577
 

[16] Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: A review of clinical and experimental studies

“H2 is emerging as a novel and safe therapeutic antioxidant. It has selective antioxidant properties, giving it anti-inflammatory properties.”

 

Hong, Y., Chen, S., & Zhang, J. (2010). Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: A review of clinical and experimental studies. Journal of International Medical Research, 38(6), 1893-1903. doi: 10.1177/147323001003800602

 

[17] Molecular hydrogen reduces LPS-induced neuroinflammation and promotes recovery from sickness behaviour in mice

 

“Twenty-four hours after systemic administration of LPS, most behavioural parameters (total resting time during the light phase, and the circadian distribution of spontaneous locomotor activity and resting) were already restored in molecular hydrogen-enriched H-ERW mice, but not in controls. Consistently, the behavioural parameters were associated with a lower upregulation of IL-1β and IL-6 (still significantly above the expression levels in shams), and with an upregulation of BDNF only in H-ERW-treated mice.”

Spulber, S., Edoff, K., Hong, L., Morisawa, S., Shirahata, S., & Ceccatelli, S. (2012). Molecular hydrogen reduces LPS-induced neuroinflammation and promotes recovery from sickness behaviour in mice. PLOS ONE, 7(7), 1-12. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042078

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