Performance: Harness boundless energy

Protecting thyroid function from oxidative stress


While all athletes may experience bouts of low energy, this is to be expected considering their highly structured and demanding training regimens. However, for some, low energy is a daily battle and believed to be linked to hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism, a condition characterized by an underactive thyroid gland, prevents the cells from receiving enough thyroid hormone and thus slows down the body’s normal processes.  One reason as to why athletes may be more likely to experience hypothyroidism has been linked to the tendency for athletes to carry higher concentrations of free radicals known as reactive oxygen species (ROS) in their bodies as a natural response to high intensity physical activity.    Excess ROS levels create a state of oxidative stress and damages thyroid function, causing hypothyroidism in athletes.     H2 eliminates excessive levels of ROS and even prevents thyroid destruction.  This implies that H2 improves energy levels in athletes by protecting the thyroid gland from oxidative stress.

Modulating your neurotransmitters


Neurotransmitters, specifically the catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine) chemical messengers in the brain that communicate information throughout the brain and body, have been shown to impact the body’s energy supply. Studies indicate that over-trained athletes appear to show decreased levels of catecholamines.  However, H2 prevents dopaminergic loss, resulting in higher quantities of dopamine in the brain  Thus, by increasing norepinephrine and dopamine levels in the brain, H2 has the power to drastically boost overall energy levels.

Improving mitochondrial function


Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is responsible for providing energy for most biological processes, is found within the mitochondria. ATP fuels the various organs of the body, including the brain and brain cells (“neurons”).   Thus, higher amounts of mitochondria within the body will generate more energy, providing athletes with what seems like an unlimited supply of natural energy. In fact, H2 has been shown to increase the expression of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α (PCG-1a) , a gene that activates the production of mitochondria (a process called “mitochondrial biogenesis”) . H2 has also been shown to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction, which allows even more ATP to be created . By increasing the total count of mitochondria and preventing mitochondrial dysfunction, H2 has the capacity to naturally boost energy levels, helping athletes of all levels work harder and longer without the crash produced by caffeine or other artificial sources of energy.  
 

H2 helps increase energy levels by…
References

[1] Hypothyroidism (Underactive Thyroid)

 

“Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid, is when the thyroid gland doesn’t make enough thyroid hormones to meet your body’s needs... Without enough thyroid hormones, many of your body’s functions slow down… some common symptoms include… fatigue…”

 

Hypothyroidism (Underactive Thyroid) | NIDDK. (n.d.). Retrieved March 13, 2017, from https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases/hypothyroidism

 

[2] Oxidants, antioxidants in physical exercise and relation to thyroid function

 

“Intensive muscular exercise promotes the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the working muscles and can impair athletic performance...Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism have been associated with increased production of ROS as well as related inflammatory response and myopathy.” 

 

Duntas, L. H. (2005). Oxidants, antioxidants in physical exercise and relation to thyroid function. Hormone and Metabolic Research, 37(9), 572-576. doi: 10.1055/s-2005-870425

 

[3] AMPK signaling in skeletal muscle during exercise: Role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species

 

“Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are generated during exercise depending on intensity, duration and training status.”

 

Morales-Alamo, D., & Calbet, J. A. (2016). AMPK signaling in skeletal muscle during exercise: Role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 98, 68-77. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.01.012

 

[4] Oxidative stress in hypothyroid patients and the role of antioxidant supplementation

 

“Oxidative stress compounds hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is a state of increased oxidative stress. In this study, biomarker, MDA level is high in treatment-naive primary hypothyroid patients.”

 

Chakrabarti, S., Ghosh, S., Banerjee, S., Mukherjee, S., & Chowdhury, S. (2016). Oxidative stress in hypothyroid patients and the role of antioxidant supplementation. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 20(5), 674-678. doi: 10.4103/2230-8210.190555

 

[5] The effect of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and their treatment on parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant status

 

“Our results reveal an increased generation of reactive oxygen species and impairment of the antioxidant system in patients with hyperthyroidism, and particularly in patients with hypothyroidism.”

 

Erdamar, H., Demirci, H., Yaman, H., Erbil, M. K., Yakar, T., Sancak, B., . . . Yetkin, I. (2008). The effect of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and their treatment on parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant status. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 46(7), 1004-1010. doi: 10.1515/cclm.2008.183

 

[6] Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: A review of clinical and experimental studies

“In the clinic, oral administration of H(2)-saturated water is reported to improve lipid and glucose metabolism in subjects with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance; promising results have also been obtained in reducing inflammation in haemodialysis patients and treating metabolic syndrome. These studies suggest H(2) has selective antioxidant properties, and can exert antiapoptotic, antiinflammatory and antiallergy effects.

 

Hong, Y., Chen, S., & Zhang, J. (2010). Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: A review of clinical and experimental studies. Journal of International Medical Research, 38(6), 1893-1903. doi: 10.1177/147323001003800602

 

[7] Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals.

“Hydrogen selectively reduces the hydroxyl radical, the most toxic free radical, and effectively protects cells. It does not react with free radicals that have physiological benefits, making it an incredibly effective therapy to neutralize acute oxidative stress.”

 

Ohsawa, I., Ishikawa, M., Takahashi, K., Watanabe, M., Nishimaki, K., Yamagata, K., . . . Ohta, S. (2007). Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Nature Medicine, 13(6), 688-694. doi: 10.1038/nm1577

 

[8] Role of catecholamine signaling in brain and nervous system functions: New insights from mouse molecular genetic study

 

“Catecholamines, including dopamine and norepinephrine, are the principal neurotransmitters that mediate a variety of the central nervous system functions…”

 

Kobayashi, K. (2001). Role of catecholamine signaling in brain and nervous system functions: New insights from mouse molecular genetic study. Journal of Investigative Dermatology Symposium Proceedings, 6(1), 115-121. doi: 10.1046/j.0022-202x.2001.00011.x

 

[9] Neurophysiology of sleep and wakefulness: Basic science and clinical implications

 

“Key cell populations of the ascending arousal pathway include cholinergic, noradrenergic, serotoninergic, dopaminergic…”

 

Schwartz, J. R. ., & Roth, T. (2008). Neurophysiology of sleep and wakefulness: Basic science and clinical implications. Current Neuropharmacology, 6(4), 367–378. doi: 10.2174/157015908787386050

 

[10] Neural correlates of sleepiness induced by catecholamine depletion

 

“AMPT-administration decreases catecholamine transmission by depleting central DA…dopamine… and NE … norepinephrine…stores, as evidenced by reduced concentrations of catecholamines …Previous studies on catecholamine depletion consistently demonstrated the occurrence of sleepiness 24 hours after the first administration of AMPT in both healthy volunteers.”

 

Meyers, N., Fromm, S., Luckenbaugh, D. A., Drevets, W. C., & Hasler, G. (2011). Neural correlates of sleepiness induced by catecholamine depletion. Psychiatry Research, 194(1), 73–78. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2011.06.015

 

[11] Training-overtraining: performance, and hormone levels, after a defined increase in training volume versus intensity in experienced middle- and long-distance runners

 

“The decrease in nocturnal catecholamine excretion during ITV might indicate a decrease in intrinsic sympathetic activity in exhausted sportsmen.”

 

Lehmann, M., Gastmann, U., Petersen, K. G., Bachl, N., Seidel, A., Khalaf, A. N., … Keul, J. (1992). Training-overtraining: performance, and hormone levels, after a defined increase in training volume versus intensity in experienced middle- and long-distance runners. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 26(4), 233–242. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1479002/

 

[12] Overtraining syndrome

 

“Reduced sympathetic activation in overtrained athletes is supported in some studies by decreased nocturnal urinary catecholamine excretion. Catecholamine excretion decreases with increasing fatigue and returns to baseline during recovery.”

 

Kreher, J. B., & Schwartz, J. B. (2012). Overtraining Syndrome: A Practical Guide. Sports Health, 4(2), 128–138. doi: 10.1177/1941738111434406

 

[13] Therapeutic effects of hydrogen in animal models of Parkinson's disease

 

“Hydrogen has an ability to reduce oxidative damage and ameliorate the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal pathway in two experimental animal models. Thus, it is strongly suggested that hydrogen might provide a great advantage to prevent or minimize the onset and progression of PD.”

 

Fujita, K., Nakabeppu, Y., & Noda, M. (2011). Therapeutic effects of hydrogen in animal models of Parkinson's disease. Parkinson's Disease, 2011(307875), 1-9. doi: 10.4061/2011/307875

 

[14] Sleep and brain energy levels: ATP changes during sleep

 

“We here report that ATP levels, the energy currency of brain cells”

 

Dworak, M., McCarley, R. W., Kim, T., Kalinchuk, A. V., & Basheer, R. (2010). Sleep and brain energy levels: ATP changes during sleep. The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 30(26), 9007–9016. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1423-10.2010

 

[15] Mitochondria impact brain function and cognition

 

“…mitochondria regulate fundamental aspects of brain function…cognition”

 

Picard, M., & Mcewen, B. S. (2013). Mitochondria impact brain function and cognition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(1), 7-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1321881111

 

[16] Molecular hydrogen stimulates the gene expression of transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α to enhance fatty acid metabolism

 

“In wild-type mice fed the fatty diet, H2-water improved the level of plasma triglycerides and extended their average of lifespan. H2 induces expression of the PGC-1α gene, followed by stimulation of the PPARα pathway that regulates FGF21, and the fatty acid and steroid metabolism.”

 

Kamimura, N. Ichimaya, H. Iuchi, K. & Ohta, S. (2016). Molecular hydrogen stimulates the gene expression of transcriptional coactivator PGC-1a to enhance fatty acid metabolism. NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease, 2(16008), 1-8. doi: 10.1038/npjamd.2016.8

 

[17] Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis

 

“PGC-1α (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α) is a co-transcriptional regulation factor that induces mitochondrial biogenesis by activating different transcription factors, including nuclear respiratory factor 1 and nuclear respiratory factor 2, which activate mitochondrial transcription factor A. The latter drives transcription and replication of mitochondrial DNA.”

 

Jornayvaz, F. R., & Shulman, G. I. (2010). Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. Essays In Biochemistry, 47, 1-15. doi: 10.1042/bse0470069

 

[18] Recent progress toward hydrogen medicine: Potential of molecular hydrogen for preventative and therapeutic applications

“H2 shows not only effects against oxidative stress, but also various anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. H2 prevented the decline of the mitochondrial membrane potential. This suggested that H2 protected mitochondria from OH. Along with this protective effect, H2 also prevented a decrease in the cellular level of ATP synthesized in mitochondria. The fact that H2 protected mitochondria and nuclear DNA provided evidence that H2 penetrated most membranes and diffused into organelles.”

 

Ohta, S. (2011). Recent progress toward hydrogen medicine: Potential of molecular hydrogen for preventative and therapeutic applications. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 17(22), 2241-2252. doi: 10.2174/138161211797052664

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