Performance: Improve Your Range of Motion

Neutralizing Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

Athletes are constantly pushing their bodies extremely hard, leading to an excessive build up of oxidative stress  and inflammation.  Oxidative stress and inflammation can both contribute to the onset and even exacerbate the experienced symptoms following delayed onset muscle soreness, leading to reduced overall range of motion.  H2 has repeatedly been evidenced to neutralize oxidative stress and inflammation, allowing the muscles to heal more rapidly while simultaneously restoring range of motion, relieving any resulting stiffness or pain.  

Relieving Pain During Stretching

Stretching is a crucial component of athletic performance that is all too often overlooked and undervalued. The repetitive movements athletes practice to fine tune their skills cause tightening in the muscles and tendons, reducing range of motion. Athletes typically fail to stretch properly, given their minimal range of motion and the associated pain that comes about when the muscles begin to resist. Unless the athlete’s pain tolerance is extremely high or they happen to be naturally flexible, most would agree that stretching is not something they look forward to or enjoy. In addition to the improved range of motion that results from regular stretching, it can also prevent injury, improve muscle development, and improve posture. H2 has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic (pain relieving) benefits, enhancing the chances that athletes will engage in deeper, more effective stretching, thus absorbing all of the benefits greater flexibility and range of motion has to offer. 

 

 

Restoring Range of Motion Following Injuries

Injuries, along with the time spent recovering can dramatically reduce an athlete’s range of motion. Some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory supplements have been shown to restore range of motion in injured patients by neutralizing free radicals and down-regulating pain. As the most powerful antioxidant, H2 has been shown to improve long-term prognosis and rapidly restore range of motion back to baseline (and even exceed prior range of motion) following sports related soft tissue injuries. H2 supplementation will allow athletes to quickly heal from an injury while restoring and enhancing range of motion at the site of injury.
 

H2 helps improve your range of motion by…
References

[1] Exercise-induced oxidative stress: Cellular mechanisms and impact on muscle force production

 

“Interestingly, low and physiological levels of reactive oxygen species are required for normal force production in skeletal muscle, but high levels of reactive oxygen species promote contractile dysfunction resulting in muscle weakness and fatigue. Ongoing research continues to probe the mechanisms by which oxidants influence skeletal muscle contractile properties and to explore interventions capable of protecting muscle from oxidant-mediated dysfunction.”

 

POWERS, S. K., & JACKSON, M. J. (2008). Exercise-induced oxidative stress: Cellular mechanisms and impact on muscle force production. Physiological Reviews, 88(4), 1243–1276. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00031.2007

 

[2] Eccentric exercise-induced delayed-onset muscle soreness and changes in markers of muscle damage and inflammation

 

“These results suggest that neutrophils can be mobilized into the circulation and migrate to the muscle tissue several hours after the eccentric exercise. There were also positive correlations between the exercise-induced increases in neutrophil migratory activity at 4 h and the increases in Mb at 48 h (r = 0.67, p < 0.05). These findings suggest that neutrophil mobilization and migration after exercise may be involved in the muscle damage and inflammatory processes.”

 

Kanda, K., Sugama, K., Hayashida, H., Sakuma, J., Kawakami, Y., Miura, S., . . . Suzuki, K. (2013). Eccentric exercise-induced delayed-onset muscle soreness and changes in markers of muscle damage and inflammation. Exercise immunology Review, 19, 72-85. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23977721

 

[3] Delayed onset muscle soreness: Treatment strategies and performance factors

 

“Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a familiar experience for the elite or novice athlete. Symptoms can range from muscle tenderness to severe debilitating pain. Eccentric activities induce micro-injury at a greater frequency and severity than other types of muscle actions. The intensity and duration of exercise are also important factors in DOMS onset.”

 

Cheung, K., Hume, P. A., & Maxwell, L. (2003). Delayed onset muscle soreness. Sports Medicine, 33(2), 145-164. doi: 10.2165/00007256-200333020-00005

 

[4] Delayed onset muscle soreness: Involvement of neurotrophic factors

 

“Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is quite a common consequence of unaccustomed strenuous exercise, especially exercise containing eccentric contraction (lengthening contraction, LC). Its typical sign is mechanical hyperalgesia (tenderness and movement related pain). Its cause has been commonly believed to be micro-damage of the muscle and subsequent inflammation.”

 

Mizumura, K., & Taguchi, T. (2016). Delayed onset muscle soreness: Involvement of neurotrophic factors. The Journal of Physiological Sciences, 66(1), 43-52. doi: 10.1007/s12576-015-0397-0

 

[5] Eccentric exercise effect on blood oxidative-stress markers and delayed onset of muscle soreness

 

“A significant decrease in MIF occurred at all times after the EE. ROM decreased from 24 to 96 h, and DOMS increased 24 to 72 h in the nondominant arm as indicated by a repeated measure ANOVA. Plasma CK activity peaked at 72 h (1620 +/- 500 IU x L(-1)) compared with baseline (154 +/- 27 IU x L(-1). Erythrocyte-reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration was not significantly affected by the EE but tended to decrease 23% by 24 h and continued at this level for 96 h. Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and total glutathione were unchanged over time. A significant increase in plasma PC occurred at 24 and 48 h after eccentric exercise.).”

 

Lee, J., Goldfarb, A. H., Rescino, M. H., Hegde, S., Patrick, S., & Apperson, K. (2002). Eccentric exercise effect on blood oxidative-stress markers and delayed onset of muscle soreness. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 34(3), 443-448. doi: 10.1097/00005768-200203000-00010

 

[6] Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: A review of clinical and experimental studies

“In the clinic, oral administration of H(2)-saturated water is reported to improve lipid and glucose metabolism in subjects with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance; promising results have also been obtained in reducing inflammation in haemodialysis patients and treating metabolic syndrome. These studies suggest H(2) has selective antioxidant properties, and can exert antiapoptotic, antiinflammatory and antiallergy effects.

 

Hong, Y., Chen, S., & Zhang, J. (2010). Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: A review of clinical and experimental studies. Journal of International Medical Research, 38(6), 1893-1903. doi: 10.1177/147323001003800602

 

[7] Molecular hydrogen as a preventive and therapeutic medical gas: Initiation, development and potential of hydrogen medicine

 

“The numerous publications on its biological and medical benefits revealed that H2 reduces oxidative stress not only by direct reactions with strong oxidants, but also indirectly by regulating various gene expressions. Moreover, by regulating the gene expressions, H2 functions as an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic, and stimulates energy metabolism.”

 

Ohta, S. (2014). Molecular hydrogen as a preventive and therapeutic medical gas: Initiation, development and potential of hydrogen medicine. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 144(1), 1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2014.04.006

 

[8] A review of hydrogen as a new medical therapy

 

“In the past few years many initial and subsequent clinical studies have demonstrated that hydrogen can act as an important physiological regulatory factor to cells and organs on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and other protective effects. So far several delivery methods applied in these studies have proved to be available and convenient, including inhalation, drinking hydrogen-dissolved water and injection with hydrogen-saturated saline.”

 

Zhang, J., Liu, C., Zhou, L., Qu, K., Wang, R., Tai, M., . . . Wang, Z. (2012). A Review of hydrogen as a new medical therapy. Hepatogastroenterology, 59(116), 1026-1032. doi: 10.5754/hge11883

 

[9] Intrathecal infusion of hydrogen-rich normal saline attenuates neuropathic pain via inhibition of activation of spinal astrocytes and microglia in rats

 

“Intrathecal injection of hydrogen-rich normal saline produced analgesic effect in neuropathic rat. Hydrogen-rich normal saline-induced analgesia in neuropathic rats is mediated by reducing the activation of spinal astrocytes and microglia, which is induced by overproduction of hydroxyl and peroxynitrite.”

 

Ge, Y., Wu, F., Sun, X., Xiang, Z., Yang, L., Huang, S., … Yu, W.-F. (2014). Intrathecal infusion of hydrogen-rich normal saline attenuates neuropathic pain via inhibition of activation of spinal astrocytes and microglia in rats

. PLOS ONE, 9(5), 1-12. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097436

 

[10] Risk factors for decreased range of motion and poor outcomes in open periarticular elbow fractures

 

“In the largest series of open elbow fractures, we identified risk factors that portend a poor clinical outcome and decreased ROM. Bipolar elbow fractures, which have not previously been associated with worse results, are particularly prone to decreased ROM and worse outcomes.”

 

Dickens, J. F., Wilson, K. W., Tintle, S. M., Heckert, R., Gordon, W. T., D’Alleyrand, J. G., & Potter, B. K. (2015). Risk factors for decreased range of motion and poor outcomes in open periarticular elbow fractures. Injury, 46(4), 676-681. doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2015.01.021

 

[11] Decreased hip range of motion and noncontact injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament

 

“There was a strong association between decreased hip range of motion and ACL ruptures in soccer players, not only but mainly because of internal rotation lessening. Despite lacking comparison with other sports, our findings showed a higher decrease in hip range of motion in the group of soccer players when compared with the general population.”

 

Gomes, J. L., Castro, J. V., & Becker, R. (2008). Decreased hip range of motion and noncontact injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament. Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic & Related Surgery, 24(9), 1034-1037. doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2008.05.012

 

 

[12] Improvement of joint range of motion (ROM) and reduction of chronic pain after consumption of an ergothioneine-containing nutritional supplement

 

“To evaluate anti-inflammatory properties of a nutraceutical blend containing L-ergothioneine in concert with other anti-inflammatory and analgesic ingredients, combined with nutritional cartilage support. Pain reduction and improved range of motion were observed during the 6-week consumption. Residual effects were seen 6 weeks after stopping consumption of the ergothioneine supplement.”

 

Benson, K. F., Ager, D. M., Landes, B., Aruoma, O. I., & Jensen, G. S. (2012). Improvement of joint range of motion (ROM) and reduction of chronic pain after consumption of an ergothioneine-containing nutritional supplement. Preventive Medicine, 54(Suppl), 83-89. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.02.001

 

[13] Consumption of dried apple peel powder increases joint function and range of motion

 

“Twelve weeks of consumption of DAPP was associated with improved ROM. DAPP provided antioxidants that were available to enter into and protect cells from oxidative damage in vitro, and consumption of DAPP for 12 weeks was associated with a statistically significant improvement in serum antioxidant protective status. This suggests multifaceted anti-inflammatory properties of DAPP. Consumption of DAPP was associated with improved joint function and improved serum antioxidant protection status. The observed pain reduction may be associated with the improved antioxidant status and linked to the apple polyphenols' anti-inflammatory effects.”

 

Jensen, G. S., Attridge, V. L., Benson, K. F., Beaman, J. L., Carter, S. G., & Ager, D. (2014). Consumption of dried apple peel powder increases joint function and range of motion. Journal of Medicinal Food, 17(11), 1204–1213. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2014.0037

 

[14] Should hydrogen therapy be included in a musculoskeletal medicine routine?

 

“Although limited in size and scope, those studies can provide early support for specific therapeutic claims about H 2 in musculoskeletal medicine. In a first trial, a combination of oral and topical H 2 resulted in a faster return to normal joint flexibility in 36 young men who had suffered sports-related soft tissue injuries, when administered for 14 days as a complementary treatment to a traditional medical protocol for soft tissue injuries”

 

Ostojic, S. M. (2016). Should hydrogen therapy be included in a musculoskeletal medicine routine? F1000Research, 5(2659), 1-5. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.9758.1
 

 

[15] The effects of hydrogen-rich formulation for treatment of sports-related soft tissue injuries

 

“Since hydrogen therapy in humans seems to be beneficial for treating inflammation, ischemia-reperfusion injury and oxidative stress, it seems plausible to evaluate the effects of exogenously administered hydrogen as an element of instant management of sport-related soft tissue injuries (e.g. muscle sprain, ligament strain, tendonitis, contusion). The investigators expect that the administration of hydrogen will significantly improve inflammation outcomes (e.g. decrease in serum C-reactive protein) as compared to the placebo, with topical hydrogen administration will additionally improve post-injury recovery outcomes (e.g. pain intensity, degree of swelling). These results could support the hypothesis that hydrogen-rich intervention may be included as an element of immediate treatment for sport-related soft tissue injuries.”

 

Ostojic, S, M. (2013, September). The effects of hydrogen-rich formulation for treatment of sports-related soft tissue injuries. Retrieved from https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01759498

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