Performance: Maximize Your Coordination

Improving Motor Function

 

In the competitive world of professional and collegiate level sports, athletes need to leverage every aspect of their skill. Controlled movement, or motor function, is the foundation of skill – boxers work on their combos, sprinters work on mastering their stride, basketball players practice drills and 3-point shots – whatever it may be, those who fine-tune their abilities set themselves apart from the rest of the pack. While a strong work ethic is fundamental to long term athletic success, H2’s antioxidant properties have been shown to dramatically enhance motor function. Improved motor functioning means that the body will do what the brain tells it to, helping athletes make the right move at exactly the right time! 

Enhancing Visual Acuity/Preventing Retinal Damage

H2 helps preserve visual acuity by preventing damage to the retina . In sports such as water polo, MMA, and boxing, athletes are at heightened risk for suffering eye injuries, potentially leading to more serious long term damage and vision loss. Any threat to eye sight and visual acuity also has the added consequence of reducing an athlete’s dexterity and overall performance. H2 not only prevents naturally occurring changes in vision, but helps enhance the healing process in the circumstance that a more severe eye injury takes place, all while simultaneously boosting an athletes hand-eye coordination. 

Eliminating Reactive Oxygen Species

Another factor that can potentially threaten an athletes’ hand-eye coordination is the accumulation of free radicals within the body, principally reactive oxygen species (ROS). Athletes in particular exhibit higher concentrations of ROS in their bodies, often related to the increased aerobic activity. Such excessive levels of ROS can lead to oxidative stress and impair hand-eye coordination. Moreover, people with excessive ROS demonstrate reduced motor control. H2 can not only eliminates such toxic levels of ROS , resulting in greater motor control, giving athletes an extra edge .

Preventing Neuronal Cell Death Following Injury

H2 protects the cerebellum and frontal lobes from neuronal cell death following brain injury . Athletes of high contact sports like football, MMA, boxing, soccer, etc., are at great risk of experiencing brain trauma. Aside from the potentially life-altering results of repetitive, traumatic brain injuries, athletes face the added problems of reduced dexterity and hand-eye coordination. Two important regions of the brain, the cerebellum and frontal lobes, are imperative for optimal hand-eye coordination and athlete motor control. When damage occurs to the cerebellum and frontal lobes following brain injury, an  accumulation of free radicals (reactive oxygen species (ROS)) could lead itself to a more severe form of brain damage and cause neuronal cell death. H2 has the capacity to eliminates excessive and damaging ROS in the brain, preventing this neuronal cell death from escalating.

Delaying Physical Fatigue

 

H2 delays fatigue, allowing for sustained hand-eye coordination. The onset of muscle fatigue during or following a workout (soreness due to damaged muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints) has been linked to decreased hand-eye coordination . This is because hand-eye coordination depends on the ability to coordinate motor skills and on one’s ability to react to visual stimuli (baseball, football etc.), both of which are significantly impaired after physical fatigue. However, H2 not only promotes healing and rapid recovery, it elevates motor coordination and therefore heightens visual-motor coordination in athletes.  
 

H2 maximizes coordination by…
References

[1] Hydrogen-rich saline protects against spinal cord injury in rats

 

“We observed that administration of hydrogen-rich saline decreased the number of apoptotic cells, suppressed oxidative stress, and improved locomotor functions. Hydrogen-rich saline increased the release of BDNF. In conclusion, hydrogen-rich saline reduced acute spinal cord contusion injury, possibly by reduction of oxidative stress and elevation of BDNF.”

 

Chen, C., Chen, Q., Mao, Y., Xu, S., Xia, C., Shi, X., . . . Sun, X. (2010). Hydrogen-rich saline protects against spinal cord injury in rats. Neurochemical Research, 35(7), 1111-1118. doi: 10.1007/s11064-010-0162-y

 

[2] Hydrogen-rich saline promotes motor functional recovery following peripheral nerve autografting in rats

 

“In the current study, the effect of hydrogen saline on axonal regeneration and functional recovery following reconstructive surgery to repair a 10-mm nerve gap in rats was investigated. The motor function evaluation, including the SFI scores, target muscle atrophy changes and CMAP parameters, and the histomorphological observations of the regenerated nerves and FG retrograde tracing revealed that hydrogen saline improved peripheral nerve regeneration with significant functional recovery, suggesting that hydrogen-rich saline could be used for peripheral nerve injury therapy.”

 

Zhang, Y.-G., Sheng, Q.-S., Wang, Z.-J., LV, L., Zhao, W., Chen, J.-M., & Xu, H. (2015). Hydrogen-rich saline promotes motor functional recovery following peripheral nerve autografting in rats. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 10(2), 727–732. doi: 10.3892/etm.2015.2518

 

[3] Protective effect of saturated hydrogen saline against blue light-induced retinal damage in rats

 

“Saturated hydrogen saline could protect the retina from light-induced damage by attenuating oxidative stress.”

 

Feng, M., Wang, X., Yang, X., Xiao, Q., & Jiang, F. (2012). Protective effect of saturated hydrogen saline against blue light-induced retinal damage in rats. International Journal of Ophthalmology, 5(2), 151-157. doi: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2012.02.07

 

[4] Sports medicine and the eye care professional

 

“Sports injuries are a common cause of severe vision loss. There are more than 40,000 eye injuries every year in the United States--many of which are sports-related.”

 

Vinger, P. F. (1998). Sports medicine and the eye care professional. Journal of the American Optometric Association, 69(6), 395-413. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9646586

 

[5] Sports-related eye injury. A preventable problem

 

“Sports-related eye injuries pose a substantial and preventable problem.”

 

Vinger, P. F. (1980). Sports-related eye injury. A preventable problem. Survey of Ophthalmology, 25(1), 47-51. doi: 10.1016/0039-6257(80)90075-2

 

[6] Sport associated eye injury: A casualty department survey

 

“One hundred and sixty-two patients (65.8%) had superficial or surrounding soft tissue injuries, 54 (22%) had more severe anterior segment damage in the form of hyphaema or traumatic uveitis, 17 (6.9%) had retinal damage manifest as oedema or retinal tear with or without detachment, and two (0.8%) suffered severe disruption of the globe with subsequent loss of the eye in each case.”

 

Macewen, C. J. (1987). Sport associated eye injury: A casualty department survey. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 71(9), 701-705. doi: 10.1136/bjo.71.9.701

 

[7] Protection of the retina by rapid diffusion of hydrogen: Administration of hydrogen-loaded eye drops in retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury

 

“H(2) has no known toxic effects on the human body. Thus, the results suggest that H(2)-loaded eye drops are a highly useful neuroprotective and antioxidative therapeutic treatment for acute retinal I/R injury.”

 

Oharazawa, H., Igarashi, T., Yokota, T., Fujii, H., Suzuki, H., Machide, M., . . . Ohsawa, I. (2010). Protection of the retina by rapid diffusion of hydrogen: Administration of hydrogen-loaded eye drops in retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.  Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 51(1), 487-492. doi: 10.1167/iovs.09-4089

 

[8] Oxidative stress and antioxidants in athletes undertaking regular exercise training

 

“Exercise has been shown to increase the production of reactive oxygen species to a point that can exceed antioxidant defenses to cause oxidative stress.”

 

Watson, T. A., Mac Donald-Wicks, L., & Garg, M. (2005). Oxidative stress and antioxidants in athletes undertaking regular exercise training. International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 15(2), 131-146. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16089272

 

[9] Overtraining syndrome

 

“Resting markers of oxidative stress are higher in overtrained athletes compared with controls.”

 

Kreher, J. B., & Schwartz, J. B. (2012). Overtraining syndrome: A Practical Guide. Sports Health, 4(2), 128–138. doi: 10.1177/1941738111434406

 

[10] Age-related losses of cognitive function and motor skills in mice are associated with oxidative protein damage in the brain

 

“These results support the view that oxidative stress is a causal factor in brain senescence. Furthermore, the findings suggest that age-related declines of cognitive and motor performance progress independently, and involve oxidative molecular damage within different regions of the brain.”

 

Forster, M. J., Dubey, A., Dawson, K. M., Stutts, W. A., Lal, H., & Sohal, R. S. (1996). Age-related losses of cognitive function and motor skills in mice are associated with oxidative protein damage in the brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93(10), 4765–4769. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC39353/

 

[11] Oxidative stress, motor abilities, and behavioral adjustment in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

 

"Oxidative stress occurs following chemo-therapy for childhood ALL and is related to impaired fine motor skills and visual symptoms.”

 

Hockenberry, M. J., Krull, K. R., Insel, K. C., Harris, L. L., Gundy, P. M., Adkins, K. B., … Moore, I. (Ki) M. (2015). Oxidative stress, motor abilities, and behavioral adjustment in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Oncology Nursing Forum, 42(5), 542–549. doi: 10.1188/15.ONF.542-549

 

[12] Elevated oxidative stress and sensorimotor deficits but normal cognition in mice that cannot synthesize ascorbic acid

 

“This suggests that low levels of ascorbic acid and elevated oxidative stress as measured by F(4)-neuroprostanes alone may be responsible for the exacerbated motor deficits in Gulo-low mice, and ascorbic acid may have a vital role in maintaining motor abilities.”

 

Harrison, F. E., Yu, S. S., Van Den Bossche, K. L., Li, L., May, J. M., & McDonald, M. P. (2008). Elevated oxidative stress and sensorimotor deficits but normal cognition in mice that cannot synthesize ascorbic acid. Journal of Neurochemistry, 106(3), 1198–1208. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05469.x

 

[13] Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals

“Hydrogen selectively reduces the hydroxyl radical, the most toxic free radical, and effectively protects cells. It does not react with free radicals that have physiological benefits, making it an incredibly effective therapy to neutralize acute oxidative stress.”

 

Ohsawa, I., Ishikawa, M., Takahashi, K., Watanabe, M., Nishimaki, K., Yamagata, K., . . . Ohta, S. (2007). Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Nature Medicine, 13(6), 688-694. doi: 10.1038/nm1577

 

[14] Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: A review of clinical and experimental studies

“H2 is emerging as a novel and safe therapeutic antioxidant. It has selective antioxidant properties, giving it anti-inflammatory properties.”

 

Hong, Y., Chen, S., & Zhang, J. (2010). Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: A review of clinical and experimental studies. Journal of International Medical Research, 38(6), 1893-1903. doi: 10.1177/147323001003800602

 

[15] Neuroprotective effect of hydrogen-rich saline against neurologic damage and apoptosis in early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage: Possible role of the Akt/GSK3β signaling pathway

 

“Additionally, Bcl-2 was significantly increased while Bax and cleaved caspase-3 was decreased by HS treatment. Double staining of pAkt and TUNEL showed few colocalization of pAkt-positive cells and TUNEL-positive cells. The inhibitor of PI3K, Ly294002, suppressed the beneficial effects of HS. HS could attenuate neuronal apoptosis in EBI and improve the neurofunctional outcome after SAH, partially via the Akt/GSK3β pathway.”

 

Hong, Y., Shao, A., Wang, J., Chen, S., Wu, H., Mcbride, D. W., . . . Zhang, J. (2014). Neuroprotective effect of hydrogen-rich saline against neurologic damage and apoptosis in early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage: possible role of the Akt/GSK3β signaling pathway. PLOS ONE, 9(4), 1-10. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096212

 

[16] Acute traumatic brain injury in amateur boxing

 

“Acute traumatic brain injury (ATBI) represents the neurologic consequence of concussive and subconcussive blows to the head. Evidence suggests that ATBI may be associated with boxing and collision sports such as American football and soccer, thus potentially exposing millions of athletes annually.”

 

Matser, E. J., Kessels, A. G., Lezak, M. D., Troost, J., & Jordan, B. D. (2000). Acute traumatic brain injury in amateur boxing. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 28(1), 87-92. doi: 10.3810/psm.2000.01.645

 

[17] Morphological and functional differences between athletes and novices in cortical neuronal networks

 

“It was found that gray matter volume in the left anterior insula (AI), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), precuneus is greater in basketball players than that in novices.”

 

Tan, X.-Y., Pi, Y.-L., Wang, J., Li, X.-P., Zhang, L.-L., Dai, W., … Wu, Y. (2016). Morphological and functional differences between athletes and novices in cortical neuronal networks. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10(660), 1-10 doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2016.00660

 

[18] Altered resting brain function and structure in professional badminton players

 

“These findings indicate that badminton expertise is associated with not only plastic structural changes in terms of enlarged gray matter density in the cerebellum, but also functional alterations in fronto-parietal connectivity. Such structural and functional alterations may reflect specific experiences of badminton training and practice, including high-capacity visuo-spatial processing and hand-eye coordination in addition to refined motor skills.”

 

Di, X., Zhu, S., Jin, H., Wang, P., Ye, Z., Zhou, K., … Rao, H. (2012). Altered resting brain function and structure in professional badminton players. Brain Connectivity, 2(4), 225–233. doi: 10.1089/brain.2011.0050

 

[19] White matter plasticity in the cerebellum of elite basketball athletes

 

"We previously reported an increased volume of vermian lobules VI-VII (declive, folium, and tuber) in elite basketball athletes who require coordination for dribbling and shooting a ball, which awakened the central role of the cerebellum in motor coordination."

 

Park, I. S., Lee, Y. N., Kwon, S., Lee, N. J., & Rhyu, I. J. (2015). White matter plasticity in the cerebellum of elite basketball athletes. Anatomy & Cell Biology, 48(4), 262–267. doi: 10.5115/acb.2015.48.4.262

 

[20] The role of the cerebellum in motor control and perception

 

"The cerebellum has an important role in control and coordination of movements. This theory not only predicts the known motor consequences of cerebellar dysfunction, it also predicts a specific kind of perceptual deficit caused by cerebellar dysfunction, namely an inability to accurately follow and predict trajectories of objects moving in the environment."

 

Paulin, M. G. (1993). The Role of the Cerebellum in Motor Control and Perception. Brain, Behavior and Evolution, 41(1), 39-50. doi: 10.1159/000113822

 

[21] The influence of expertise on brain activation of the action observation network during anticipation of tennis and volleyball serves

 

"The association of activation within the SPL and the cerebellum with the task achievement suggests that these areas are the predominant brain sites involved in fast motor predictions."

 

Balser, N., Lorey, B., Pilgramm, S., Naumann, T., Kindermann, S., Stark, R., . . . Munzert, J. (2014). The influence of expertise on brain activation of the action observation network during anticipation of tennis and volleyball serves. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8(568). 1-13. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00568

 

[22] The neuropathology of sport

 

"CTE is a latent neurodegeneration clinically associated with behavioral changes, executive dysfunction and cognitive impairments, and pathologically characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy, neuronal and axonal loss, and abnormal deposits of paired helical filament (PHF)-tau and 43 kDa TAR deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-binding protein (TDP-43). CTE often occurs as a sole diagnosis, but may be associated with other neurodegenerative disorders, including motor neuron disease (CTE-MND)."

 

McKee, A. C., Daneshvar, D. H., Alvarez, V. E., & Stein, T. D. (2014). The neuropathology of sport. Acta Neuropathologica, 127(1), 29–51. doi: 10.1007/s00401-013-1230-6

 

[23] PACAP protects cerebellar granule neurons against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis

 

"Oxidative stress, resulting from accumulation of reactive oxygen species, plays a critical role in neuronal cell death associated with neurodegenerative diseases and stroke."

 

Vaudry, D., Pamantung, T. F., Basille, M., Rousselle, C., Fournier, A., Vaudry, H., . . . Gonzalez, B. J. (2002). PACAP protects cerebellar granule neurons against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. European Journal of Neuroscience, 15(9), 1451-1460. doi: 10.1046/j.1460-9568.2002.01981.x

 

[24] Increase in blood–brain barrier permeability, oxidative stress, and activated microglia in a rat model of blast-induced traumatic brain injury†

 

“These results indicate that BBB breakdown, oxidative stress, and microglia activation likely play a role in the neuropathology associated with TBI as a result of blast exposure.”

 

Readnower, R. D., Chavko, M., Adeeb, S., Conroy, M. D., Pauly, J. R., Mccarron, R. M., & Sullivan, P. G. (2010). Increase in blood-brain barrier permeability, oxidative stress, and activated microglia in a rat model of blast-induced traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 88(16), 3530-3539. doi: 10.1002/jnr.22510

 

[25] Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates cognitive impairment in transient cerebral ischemia via inhibition of oxidative stress

 

“Inhalation of hydrogen gas could attenuate cognitive impairment in the ischemic rats. This protection is associated with decreased neuronal death in CA1 region and inhibition of oxidative stress.”

 

Ge, P., Zhao, J., Li, S., Ding, Y., Yang, G., & Luo, Y. (2012). Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates cognitive impairment in transient cerebral ischemia via inhibition of oxidative stress. Neurological Research, 34(2), 187-194. doi: 10.1179/1743132812y.0000000002

 

[26] Electrochemically reduced water protects neural cells from oxidative damage

 

“Electrochemically reduced water (ERW), which contains small amounts of molecular hydrogen, was demonstrated to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in several cell types. This study collectively demonstrated for the first time that ERW protects several types of neuronal cells by scavenging ROS because of the presence of hydrogen and platinum nanoparticles dissolved in ERW.”

 

Kashiwagi, T., Yan, H., Hamasaki, T., Kinjo, T., Nakamichi, N., Teruya, K., . . . Shirahata, S. (2014). Electrochemically reduced water protects neural cells from oxidative damage. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2014(869121), 1-18. doi: 10.1155/2014/869121

 

[27] Reductions in interhemispheric motor cortex functional connectivity after muscle fatigue

 

“We found that the number of significant interhemispheric correlations in the MI fMRI signals decreased significantly after the performance of the fatigue task.”

 

Peltier, S. J., Laconte, S. M., Niyazov, D. M., Liu, J. Z., Sahgal, V., Yue, G. H., & Hu, X. P. (2005). Reductions in interhemispheric motor cortex functional connectivity after muscle fatigue. Brain Research, 1057(1-2), 10-16. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2005.06.078

 

[28] Influence of fatigue on hand muscle coordination and EMG-EMG coherence during three-digit grasping

 

“The present study was designed to quantify the extent to which muscle fatigue influences the coordination of simultaneously active hand muscles.  Subsequent studies showed changes in other indices of digit force coordination that could not be accounted for by peripheral mechanisms alone. These studies provide evidence that in both maximal and submaximal fatiguing contractions descending commands responsible for digit force coordination are sensitive to fatigue.”

 

Danna-Dos Santos, A., Poston, B., Jesunathadas, M., Bobich, L. R., Hamm, T. M., & Santello, M. (2010). Influence of fatigue on hand muscle coordination and EMG-EMG coherence during three-digit grasping. Journal of Neurophysiology, 104(6), 3576–3587. doi: 10.1152/jn.00583.2010

 

[29] Acute effects of muscle fatigue and recovery on force production and relaxation in endurance, power and strength athletes

 

“The present fatiguing loading resulted in all athlete groups in significant, worsening in maximal force, in the times of force production and in the maximal rates of force production and relaxation.” 

 

Häkkinen, K., Myllylä, E. (1990). Acute effects of muscle fatigue and recovery on force production and relaxation in endurance, power and strength athletes. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 30(1). 5-12. Retrieved from http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/2195236

 

[30]  Differences in ball sports athletes speed discrimination skills before and after exercise induced fatigue

 

“One aspect of visual processing that requires further investigation in the sport domain is decision-making time and accuracy in relation to discrimination of the speed of a moving object.  The results showed that athletes’ decision-making time decreased and decision-making errors increased after a maximal aerobic capacity exercise task. The current findings clearly demonstrated that the athletes made decisions faster at the expense of accuracy when fatigued.”

 

Thomson, K. , Watt, A. P., Liukkonen, J. (2009). Differences in ball sports athletes speed discrimination skills before and after exercise induced fatigue. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 8, 259-264. doi: 10.2466/pms.107.7.893-900

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