Performance: Repair Existing Injuries
Repairing Broken Bones
Whether it's boxing, hockey, martial arts, football, extreme sports, race-car driving, soccer, wrestling, basketball, baseball or rugby - athletes of any contact sport are at significantly heightened risk of collisions that may cause broken bones. Such injuries leave athletes out of the game for months, leading to deterioration of their muscles, endurance, and all of the skills that are dependent on consistent strength and conditioning exercises. However, H2 has the capacity to speed up the recovery process, helping broken bones heal more quickly by preventing osteoclast differentiation , which prevents broken bones from further degradation. Rather, H2’s healing power lies in its ability activate osteoblast differentiation, which helps the formation of new bone cells, allowing athletes with stress fractures or broken bones to return to play much more quickly.
Restoring Cartilage, Tendon and Ligament Damage
Everything from ankle sprains, torn meniscus, torn rotator cuffs, to ACL, PCL, and MCL injuries all involve damage to the cartilage, tendons or ligaments. These various types of injuries can cost athletes weeks to months of time off their sport, making the transition back to the that much more challenging. However, with H2 therapy, athletes will undergo rapid recovery from such injuries. In fact, H2 has been shown to prevent cartilage damage, restore gene expressions leading to cartilage repair , and promote type-I collagen synthesis which helps restoration of damaged tendons and ligaments. H2 is also ideal for managing soft tissue injuries such as muscle strains, ligament sprains, tendonitis, contusions, etc. With H2, athletes will experience more rapid and efficient recovery, and be back on their A-game in faster than ever before.
Neutralizing Oxidative Stress and Inflammation
The alarming reality of the frequency of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) in high-contact sports leaves athletes at risk for more serious, long-term consequences that could not only impact the course of their professional careers, but more importantly, the course of their lives thereafter. Much of the underlying damage that takes place in TBIs has been linked to elevated levels of free radical production, which in excess leads to a state of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. The resulting damage can cause apoptosis (cell death), increasing the likelihood of neurodegenerative diseases such as CTE, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s disease., etc. in the later stages of life. H2’s powerful antioxidant mechanisms have been shown to neutralize the oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain, helping athletes not only recover more rapidly from acute symptoms of brain injury, but further reducing the chances of acquiring a more serious neurological condition in the future.
H2 repairs existing injuries by…
 Treatment with hydrogen molecules prevents RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation associated with inhibition of ROS formation and inactivation of MAPK, AKT and NF-kappa B pathways in murine RAW264.7 cells
“The bone protective effects of the hydrogen molecule (H2) have been demonstrated in several osteoporosis models. Hydrogen molecules prevented RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation associated with inhibition of reactive oxygen species formation and inactivation of NF-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinase and AKT pathways.”
Li, D., Zhang, Q., Dong, X., Li, H., & Ma, X. (2013). Treatment with hydrogen molecules prevents RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation associated with inhibition of ROS formation and inactivation of MAPK, AKT and NF-kappa B pathways in murine RAW264.7 cells. Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism, 32(5), 494-504. doi: 10.1007/s00774-013-0530-1
 Treatment of hydrogen molecule abates oxidative stress and alleviates bone loss induced by modeled microgravity in rats
“Treatment with HW alleviated HLS-induced reduction of bone mineral density, ultimate load, stiffness, and energy in femur and lumbar vertebra. Treatment with HW alleviated HLS-induced augmentation of malondialdehyde content and peroxynitrite content and reduction of total sulfhydryl content in femur and lumbar vertebra. Treatment with molecular hydrogen alleviates microgravity-induced bone loss through abating oxidative stress, restoring osteoblastic differentiation, and suppressing osteoclast differentiation and osteoclastogenesis.”
Sun, Y., Shuang, F., Chen, D. M., & Zhou, R. B. (2012). Treatment of hydrogen molecule abates oxidative stress and alleviates bone loss induced by modeled microgravity in rats. Osteoporosis International, 24(3), 969-978. doi: 10.1007/s00198-012-2028-4
 Molecular hydrogen protects chondrocytes from oxidative stress and indirectly alters gene expressions through reducing peroxynitrite derived from nitric oxide
“H2 decreased the levels of the nitrated proteins, and suppressed chondrocyte death. It is known that the matrix proteins of cartilage (including aggrecan and type II collagen) and matrix metalloproteinases (such as MMP3 and MMP13) are down- and up-regulated by ONOO-, respectively. H2 restoratively increased the gene expressions of aggrecan and type II collagen in the presence of H2. Conversely, the gene expressions of MMP3 and MMP13 were restoratively down-regulated with H2. Thus, H2 acted to restore transcriptional alterations induced by ONOO-.”
Hanaoka, T., Kamimura, N., Yokota, T., Takai, S., & Ohta, S. (2011). Molecular hydrogen protects chondrocytes from oxidative stress and indirectly alters gene expressions through reducing peroxynitrite derived from nitric oxide. Medical Gas Research, 1(18), 1-8. doi: 10.1186/2045-9912-1-18
 Hydrogen supplementation of preservation solution improves viability of osteochondral grafts
“The continuous delivery of hydrogen to culture medium improved OCT viability during cold preservation. The present findings suggest that OCTs preserved in hydrogen-rich culture media are a promising material for cartilage repair in the clinical setting.”
Yamada, T., Uchida, K., Onuma, K., Kuzuno, J., Ujihira, M., Inoue, G., … Takaso, M. (2014). Hydrogen supplementation of preservation solution improves viability of osteochondral grafts. The Scientific World Journal, 2014(109876), 1-7.doi: 10.1155/2014/109876
 Hydrogen water intake via tube-feeding for patients with pressure ulcer and its reconstructive effects on normal human skin cells in vitro
“Hydrogen water group shows higher proliferation of cells with rounded morphology in fibroblasts and huge morphology, and more abundant in type-I collagen than ones of reverse osmotic ultra-pure water group.
Li, Q., Kato, S., Matsuoka, D., Tanaka, H., & Miwa, N. (2013). Hydrogen water intake via tube-feeding for patients with pressure ulcer and its reconstructive effects on normal human skin cells in vitro. Medical Gas Research, 3(20), 1-16. doi: 10.1186/2045-9912-3-20
 Hydrogen-rich electrolyzed warm water represses wrinkle formation against UVA ray together with type-I collagen production and oxidative-stress diminishment in fibroblasts and cell-injury prevention in keratinocytes
“HW-bathing significantly improved wrinkle in four subjects on the back of neck on 90th day as compared to 0 day. Thus, HW may serve as daily skin care to repress UVA-induced skin damages by ROS-scavenging and promotion of type-I collagen synthesis in dermis.”
Kato, S., Saitoh, Y., Iwai, K., & Miwa, N. (2012). Hydrogen-rich electrolyzed warm water represses wrinkle formation against UVA ray together with type-I collagen production and oxidative-stress diminishment in fibroblasts and cell-injury prevention in keratinocytes. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B, Biology, 106, 24-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2011.09.006
 The effects of hydrogen-rich formulation for treatment of sports-related soft tissue injuries
“Since hydrogen therapy in humans seems to be beneficial for treating inflammation, ischemia-reperfusion injury and oxidative stress, it seems plausible to evaluate the effects of exogenously administered hydrogen as an element of instant management of sport-related soft tissue injuries (e.g. muscle strain, ligament sprain, tendonitis, contusion). The investigators expect that the administration of hydrogen will significantly improve inflammation outcomes (e.g. decrease in serum C-reactive protein) as compared to the placebo, with topical hydrogen administration will additionally improve post-injury recovery outcomes (e.g. pain intensity, degree of swelling). These results could support the hypothesis that hydrogen-rich intervention may be included as an element of immediate treatment for sport-related soft tissue injuries.”
 Interactions of oxidative stress and neurovascular inflammation in the pathogenesis of traumatic brain injury
“Oxidative stress plays a major role in many pathophysiologic changes that occur after TBI. In fact, oxidative stress occurs when there is an impairment or inability to balance antioxidant production with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) levels. ROS directly downregulate proteins of tight junctions and indirectly activate matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that contribute to open the BBB. Loosening of the vasculature and perivascular unit by oxidative stress-induced activation of MMPs and fluid channel aquaporins promotes vascular or cellular fluid edema, enhances leakiness of the BBB, and leads to progression of neuroinflammation.”
Abdul-Muneer, P. M., Chandra, N., & Haorah, J. (2014). Interactions of oxidative stress and neurovascular inflammation in the pathogenesis of traumatic brain injury. Molecular Neurobiology, 51(3), 966-979. doi: 10.1007/s12035-014-8752-3
 Neuronal cell death in neurodegenerative diseases: recurring themes around protein handling
“Neuronal cell death plays a role in many chronic neurodegenerative diseases with the loss of particular subsets of neurons. This review describes the main mechanisms of neuronal cell death, particularly apoptosis, necrosis, excitotoxicity and autophagic cell death, and their role in neurodegenerative diseases such as ischaemia, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases.
Gorman, A. M. (2008). Neuronal cell death in neurodegenerative diseases: recurring themes around protein handling. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 12(6a), 2263–2280. doi: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2008.00402.x
 Hydrogen-rich saline protects against oxidative damage and cognitive deficits after mild traumatic brain injury
““Oxidative stress is the principal factor in traumatic brain injury (TBI) that initiates events that result in protracted neuronal dysfunction and remodeling. Importantly, antioxidants can protect the brain against oxidative damage and modulate the capacity of the brain to cope with synaptic dysfunction and cognitive impairment. These results suggest that hydrogen-rich saline can protect the brain against the deleterious effects of mild TBI on synaptic plasticity and cognition and that hydrogen-rich saline could be an effective therapeutic strategy for patients with cognitive deficits after TBI.”
Hou, Z., Luo, W., Sun, X., Hao, S., Zhang, Y., Xu, F., . . . Liu, B. (2012). Hydrogen-rich saline protects against oxidative damage and cognitive deficits after mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Research Bulletin, 88(6), 560-565. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2012.06.006
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