Performance: Upgrade Your Speed

Enhancing Nitric Oxide Production

As one of the foundational components of athletics, speed is essential in succeeding in nearly every sport. Nitrate supplements have been observed to increase sprint speed in athletes. This observed acceleration occurs as nitrate breaks down into nitric oxide (NO), dilating the blood vessels and increasing the nutrient concentration and blood flow throughout body.  Of particular importance is that NO increases blood flow to the fast twitch muscles  used for explosive movements and speed. In turn, a greater supply of NO facilitates more efficient and rapid nutrient delivery and absorption to the body, including the skeletal muscles.  H2 has been shown to enhance nitric oxide production, augmenting athletic speed to help athletes reach all time personal records. 

Neutralizing Inflammation 

Mechanical loading (intense exercise) can cause severe inflammation in athletes.  Following intense training, the muscles develop micro-tears eliciting a natural inflammatory response,  activated to restore and promote healing.  However, it is when this inflammation becomes “chronic” (often a result of over-training) that it provokes damage and the symptoms of delayed onset muscle sorenesss. In fact, one study found this pro-inflammatory response to cause athletes to feel increased heaviness in their legs and reduced the amount of force they are able to generate.  This can seriously impede explosive exercise that involve power and speed, presenting a major obstacle in an athlete’s progress. H2’s anti-inflammatory mechanisms neutralize the subsequent inflammation, promoting a speedy recovery from muscle soreness and allowing athletes to persistently push their limits. 

Enhancing ATP Production

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of life, which is responsible for providing energy for most biological processes, is found within the mitochondria. ATP fuels the various organs of the body, including the muscles.  Thus, higher amounts of mitochondria within the body will generate more ATP, providing athletes with what seems like a limitless supply of natural energy. In fact, H2 has been shown to increase the expression of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α (PGC-1a),  a gene that activates the production of mitochondria (a process called “mitochondrial biogenesis”).  H2 has also been shown to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction which allows more ATP to be created.  By increasing the total amount of mitochondria and preventing mitochondrial dysfunction, H2 has the capacity to naturally boost the body’s energy supply, maximizing athletic power and speed by providing an abundant supply of fuel to their muscles .  
 

H2 helps upgrade your speed by…
References

[1] Dietary nitrate supplementation improves sprint and high-intensity intermittent running performance

 

“Dietary NO3- supplementation enhances maximal sprint and high-intensity intermittent running performance in competitive team sport players.  Our findings suggest that NO3- supplementation has the potential to improve performance in single-sprint or multiple-sprint (team) sports.”

 

Thompson, C., Vanhatalo, A., Jell, H., Fulford, J., Carter, J., Nyman, L., . . . Jones, A. M. (2016). Dietary nitrate supplementation improves sprint and high-intensity intermittent running performance. Nitric Oxide, 61, 55-61. doi: 10.1016/j.niox.2016.10.006

 

[2] Dietary nitrate improves sprint performance and cognitive function during prolonged intermittent exercise

 

“These findings suggest that dietary NO3 (-) enhances repeated sprint performance and may attenuate the decline in cognitive function (and specifically reaction time) that may occur during prolonged intermittent exercise.”

 

Thompson, C., Wylie, L. J., Fulford, J., Kelly, J., Black, M. I., Mcdonagh, S. T., . . . Jones, A. M. (2015). Dietary nitrate improves sprint performance and cognitive function during prolonged intermittent exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 115(9), 1825-1834. doi: 10.1007/s00421-015-3166-0

 

 

[3] The ergogenic potential of arginine

 

“One of the main effects of NO on skeletal muscle metabolism is to increase the delivery and uptake of fuel substrates via its vasodilating effects”

 

Campbell, B. I., La Bounty, P. M., & Roberts, M. (2004). The ergogenic potential of arginine. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 1(2), 35–38. doi: 10.11861550-2783-1-2-35

 

[4] Nitrate intake promotes shift in muscle fiber type composition during sprint interval training in hypoxia

 

“Recent data indicate that nitrate intake increases blood flow and contractility to a greater extent in fast-glycolytic than in slow-oxidative whole muscle and muscle fibers… This may explain the more explicit effects of nitrate supplementation on performance during high-intensity exercise requiring greater input of type II fibers for production of high power outputs at high contraction velocities.”

 

Smet, S. D., Thienen, R. V., Deldicque, L., James, R., Sale, C., Bishop, D. J., & Hespel, P. (2016). Nitrate intake promotes shift in muscle fiber type composition during sprint interval training in hypoxia. Frontiers in Physiology, 7(233), 1-11. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2016.00233

 

[5] Dietary nitrate supplementation and exercise performance

 

“NO can modulate skeletal muscle function through its role in the regulation of blood flow, contractility, glucose and calcium homeostasis, and mitochondrial respiration and biogenesis”

 

Jones, A. M. (2014). Dietary nitrate supplementation and exercise performance. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.z.), 44(Suppl 1), 35–45. doi: 10.1007s40279-014-0149-y

 

[6] Hydrogen-rich water decreases serum LDL-cholesterol levels and improves HDL function in patients with potential metabolic syndrome

 

“The effect of H2 on the anti-inflammatory properties of HDL was tested, including protection of cytokine-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide production, which has been suggested as an important endothelial-atheroprotective effect of HDL.”

 

Song, G., Li, M., Sang, H., Zhang, L., Li, X., Yao, S., . . . Qin, S. (2013). Hydrogen-rich water decreases serum LDL-cholesterol levels and improves HDL function in patients with potential metabolic syndrome. The Journal of Lipid​ Research, 54(7), 1884-1893. doi: 10.1194/jlr.m036640

 

[7] Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline against erectile dysfunction in a streptozotocin induced diabetic rat model

 

“Hydrogen-rich saline improved nitric oxide synthase activity. Hydrogen-rich saline effectively improved erectile function in a streptozotocin induced diabetic rat model of erectile dysfunction.”

 

Fan, M., Xu, X., He, X., Chen, L., Qian, L., Liu, J., . . . Sun, X. (2013). Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline against erectile dysfunction in a streptozotocin induced diabetic rat model. The Journal of Urology, 190(1), 350-356. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2012.12.001

 

[8] Molecular hydrogen as an emerging therapeutic medical gas for neurodegenerative and other diseases

“Mice were placed in a chamber with 70% hydrogen gas for two weeks. The mice exhibited decreased fibrosis, improvement of hemodynamics, increased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) II activity, increased antioxidant enzyme activity, decreased lipid peroxide levels, and decreased circulating tumor-necrosis-factor-(TNF-)  α  levels.”

Ohno, K., Ito, M., Ichihara, M., & Ito, M. (2012). Molecular hydrogen as an emerging therapeutic medical gas for neurodegenerative and other diseases. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2012(353152), 1-11. doi: 10.1155/2012/353152

 

[9] Mechanical loading and injury induce human myotubes to release neutrophil chemoattractants

 

“Skeletal muscle cells after mechanical loading and injury are an important source of soluble factors that differentially influence neutrophil chemotaxis and the stages of neutrophil-derived reactive oxygen species production.”

 

Tsivitse, S. K. (2004). Mechanical loading and injury induce human myotubes to release neutrophil chemoattractants. AJP: Cell Physiology, 288(3), 721-729. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00237.2004

 

[10] Insights into the molecular etiology of exercise-induced inflammation: Opportunities for optimizing performance

 

“The inflammatory response associated with EIMD is presented with emphasis in leukocyte accumulation through mechanisms that are largely coordinated by pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines released either by injured muscle itself or other cells… are discussed with respect to athletic performance. Specifically, the mechanisms leading to performance deterioration and development of muscle soreness.”

 

Fatouros, I., & Jamurtas, A. (2016). Insights into the molecular etiology of exercise-induced inflammation: Opportunities for optimizing performance. Journal of Inflammation Research, 9, 175-186. doi: 10.2147/jir.s114635

 

[11] Inflammatory processes in muscle injury and repair

 

“Modified muscle use or injury can produce a stereotypic inflammatory response in which neutrophils rapidly invade, followed by macrophages. This inflammatory response coincides with muscle repair, regeneration, and growth, which involve activation and proliferation of satellite cells, followed by their terminal differentiation.”

 

Tidball, J. G. (2005). Inflammatory processes in muscle injury and repair. American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 288(2), 345-353. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00454.2004

 

[12] Atrial fibrillation in athletes: Implicit literature-based connections suggest that overtraining and subsequent inflammation may be a contributory mechanism

 

“Further searching and literature analysis revealed that excessive endurance exercise or overtraining can lead to chronic systemic inflammation.”

 

Swanson, D. R. (2006). Atrial fibrillation in athletes: Implicit literature-based connections suggest that overtraining and subsequent inflammation may be a contributory mechanism. Medical Hypotheses, 66(6), 1085-1092. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2006.01.006

 

[13] Hemorheological disturbances in the overtraining syndrome

 

“These findings suggest that the feeling of heavy legs in overtrained athletes are related to hemorheologic disturbances. In the light of the recent concept explaining this syndrome by a mild chronic inflammatory reaction”

 

Varlet, E. M., Maso, F., Lac, G., & Brun, J. F. (2004). Hemorheological disturbances in the overtraining syndrome. Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation, 3(3-4), 211-281. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15258345.

 

[14] Oxidative stress, inflammation and angiogenesis markers in elite female water polo athletes throughout a season

 

“The findings of this study indicate that oxidative stress and inflammation varies over the season in elite female water polo athletes and this information might be used to apply remedies for optimizing athletic performance and accelerating training recovery.”

 

Varamenti, E. I., Kyparos, A., Veskoukis, A. S., Bakou, M., Kalaboka, S., Jamurtas, A. Z., . . . Kouretas, D. (2013). Oxidative stress, inflammation and angiogenesis markers in elite female water polo athletes throughout a season. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 61, 3-8. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2012.12.001

 

[15] Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: A review of clinical and experimental studies

“In the clinic, oral administration of H(2)-saturated water is reported to improve lipid and glucose metabolism in subjects with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance; promising results have also been obtained in reducing inflammation in haemodialysis patients and treating metabolic syndrome. These studies suggest H(2) has selective antioxidant properties, and can exert antiapoptotic, antiinflammatory and antiallergy effects.

 

Hong, Y., Chen, S., & Zhang, J. (2010). Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: A review of clinical and experimental studies. Journal of International Medical Research, 38(6), 1893-1903. doi: 10.1177/147323001003800602

 

[16] Molecular hydrogen as a preventive and therapeutic medical gas: Initiation, development and potential of hydrogen medicine

 

“The numerous publications on its biological and medical benefits revealed that H2 reduces oxidative stress not only by direct reactions with strong oxidants, but also indirectly by regulating various gene expressions. Moreover, by regulating the gene expressions, H2 functions as an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic, and stimulates energy metabolism.”

 

Ohta, S. (2014). Molecular hydrogen as a preventive and therapeutic medical gas: Initiation, development and potential of hydrogen medicine. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 144(1), 1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2014.04.006

 

[17] A review of hydrogen as a new medical therapy

 

“In the past few years many initial and subsequent clinical studies have demonstrated that hydrogen can act as an important physiological regulatory factor to cells and organs on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and other protective effects. So far several delivery methods applied in these studies have proved to be available and convenient, including inhalation, drinking hydrogen-dissolved water and injection with hydrogen-saturated saline.”

 

Zhang, J., Liu, C., Zhou, L., Qu, K., Wang, R., Tai, M., . . . Wang, Z. (2012). A Review of hydrogen as a new medical therapy. Hepatogastroenterology, 59(116), 1026-1032. doi: 10.5754/hge11883

 

[18] Simulating the physiology of athletes during endurance sports events: Modelling human energy conversion and metabolism

 

“Physical exercise affects human physiology at multiple scales. The physical work done by athletes is associated with force exertion, temperature changes in the whole body, sweat excretion and increased uptake of oxygen, water and food, all measurable at the whole body level. At the cellular scale, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis energizes the interaction of actin and myosin molecules in the sarcomeres of the muscle cells.”

 

Van Beek, J. H. G. M., Supandi, F., Gavai, A. K., de Graaf, A. A., Binsl, T. W., & Hettling, H. (2011). Simulating the physiology of athletes during endurance sports events: modelling human energy conversion and metabolism. Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences, 369(1954), 4295–4315.doi: 10.1098/rsta.2011.0166

 

[19] Molecular hydrogen stimulates the gene expression of transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α to enhance fatty acid metabolism

 

“In wild-type mice fed the fatty diet, H2-water improved the level of plasma triglycerides and extended their average of lifespan. H2 induces expression of the PGC-1α gene, followed by stimulation of the PPARα pathway that regulates FGF21, and the fatty acid and steroid metabolism.”

 

Kamimura, N. Ichimaya, H. Iuchi, K. & Ohta, S. (2016). Molecular hydrogen stimulates the gene expression of transcriptional coactivator PGC-1a to enhance fatty acid metabolism. NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease, 2(16008), 1-8. doi: 10.1038/npjamd.2016.8

 

[20] Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis

 

“PGC-1α (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1α) is a co-transcriptional regulation factor that induces mitochondrial biogenesis by activating different transcription factors, including nuclear respiratory factor 1 and nuclear respiratory factor 2, which activate mitochondrial transcription factor A. The latter drives transcription and replication of mitochondrial DNA.”

 

Jornayvaz, F. R., & Shulman, G. I. (2010). Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. Essays In Biochemistry, 47, 1-15. doi: 10.1042/bse0470069

 

[21] Recent progress toward hydrogen medicine: Potential of molecular hydrogen for preventative and therapeutic applications

“H2 shows not only effects against oxidative stress, but also various anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. H2 prevented the decline of the mitochondrial membrane potential. This suggested that H2 protected mitochondria from OH. Along with this protective effect, H2 also prevented a decrease in the cellular level of ATP synthesized in mitochondria. The fact that H2 protected mitochondria and nuclear DNA provided evidence that H2 penetrated most membranes and diffused into organelles.”

 

Ohta, S. (2011). Recent progress toward hydrogen medicine: Potential of molecular hydrogen for preventative and therapeutic applications. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 17(22), 2241-2252. doi: 10.2174/138161211797052664

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