Skin Disorders

Research & Studies

Addressing free radical oxidation in acne vulgaris

 

“The presence of excessive reactive oxygen species can be implicated in each of the major abnormalities involved. This presence, along with the positive results of the authors’ preliminary study, demonstrates the need for more exploration on the use of topical antioxidants in limiting free radical oxidation in the acne model. ROS can be implicated in each of the abnormalities associated with acne vulgaris.”

 

Mills, O. H., Criscito, M. C., Schlesinger, T. E., Verdicchio, R., & Szoke, E. (2016). Addressing free radical oxidation in acne vulgaris. Journal of Clinical Aesthetic Dermatology, 9(1), 25-30. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4756869/

 

Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: A review of clinical and experimental studies

“H2 is emerging as a novel and safe therapeutic antioxidant. It has selective antioxidant properties, giving it anti-inflammatory properties.”

Hong, Y., Chen, S., & Zhang, J. (2010). Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: A review of clinical and experimental studies. Journal of International Medical Research, 38(6), 1893-1903. doi: 10.1177/147323001003800602

 

Oxidants and anti-oxidants status in acne vulgaris patients with varying severity

 

“Acne vulgaris is a common dermatological disorder with a multifactorial pathogenesis. Oxidative status has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several skin diseases, including acne. The data suggests that oxidative stress plays a key role in acne progress and may be employed as a biomarker index to assess the disease’s activity and to monitor its treatment.”

 

Al-Shobaili, H. A. (2014). Oxidants and anti-oxidants status in acne vulgaris patients with varying severity. Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science, 44(2), 202-207. Retrieved from http://www.annclinlabsci.org/content/44/2/202.full

 

​Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals

“Hydrogen selectively reduces the hydroxyl radical, the most toxic free radical, and effectively protects cells. It does not react with free radicals that have physiological benefits, making it an incredibly effective therapy to neutralize acute oxidative stress.”

 

Ohsawa, I., Ishikawa, M., Takahashi, K., Watanabe, M., Nishimaki, K., Yamagata, K., . . . Ohta, S. (2007). Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Nature Medicine, 13(6), 688-694. doi: 10.1038/nm1577

 

Oxidative stress in acne vulgaris: An important therapeutic target

 

“There has been an increasing focus on the extent to which oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of acne. The results obtained in this study clearly showed the existence of oxidative stress in patients with acne vulgaris, and that oxidative stress along with inflammation play a critical role in acne pathogenesis; furthermore, oxidative stress in acne patients may represents a potential therapeutic target and interference with antioxidant is a rationale choice.”

 

Sahib, A., Alanbari, H., & Raghif, A. (2013). Oxidative stress in acne vulgaris: An important therapeutic target. Journal of Molecular Pathophysiology, 2(1), 27-31. doi: 10.5455/jmp.20130127102901

 

 

Recent progress toward hydrogen medicine: Potential of molecular hydrogen for preventive and therapeutic applications

 

“H2 has a number of advantages as a potential antioxidant: H2 rapidly diffuses into tissues and cells, and it is mild enough neither to disturb metabolic redox reactions nor to affect reactive oxygen species (ROS) that function in cell signaling, thereby, there should be little adverse effects of consuming H2. H2 shows not only effects against oxidative stress, but also various anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. H2 regulates various gene expressions and protein-phosphorylations as well.”

 

Ohta, S. (2011). Recent progress toward hydrogen medicine: Potential of molecular hydrogen for preventive and therapeutic applications. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 17(22), 2241-2252. doi: 10.2174/138161211797052664

 

The role of inflammation in the pathology of acne

 

“Emerging data indicate that acne vulgaris is a primary inflammatory disease, with histological, immunological, and clinical evidence suggesting that inflammation occurs at all stages of acne lesion development. Because inflammation is critical to all types of acne lesions and is multifactorial, anti-inflammatory drugs can be expected to exert effects against all lesion stages, albeit via distinct mechanisms of anti-inflammation.”

 

Tanghetti, E. A. (2013). The role of inflammation in the pathology of acne. Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology, 6(9), 27-35. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3780801/

 

​The evolution of molecular hydrogen: A noteworthy potential therapy with clinical significance

 

“Hydrogen is qualified to cross the blood brain barrier, to enter the mitochondria, and even has the ability to translocate to the nucleus under certain conditions. Once in these ideal locations of the cell, previous studies have shown that hydrogen exerts antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective properties that are beneficial to the cell.”

 

Dixon, B. J., Tang, J., & Zhang, J. H. (2013). The evolution of molecular hydrogen: A noteworthy potential therapy with clinical significance. Medical Gas Research, 3(10), 1-12. doi: 10.1186/2045-9912-3-10

 

Oxidative stress and its role in skin disease

 

“Skin is a major target of oxidative stress due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) that originate in the environment and in the skin itself. ROS are generated during normal metabolism, are an integral part of normal cellular function, and are usually of little harm because of intracellular mechanisms that reduce their damaging effects. Antioxidants attenuate the damaging effects of ROS and can impair and/or reverse many of the events that contribute to epidermal toxicity and disease.”

 

Trouba, K. J., Hamadeh, H. K., Amin, R. P., & Germolec, D. R. (2002). Oxidative stress and its role in skin disease. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 4(4), 665-673. doi: 10.1089/15230860260220175

 

Molecular hydrogen as a preventive and therapeutic medical gas: Initiation, development and potential of hydrogen medicine

 

“The numerous publications on its biological and medical benefits revealed that H2 reduces oxidative stress not only by direct reactions with strong oxidants, but also indirectly by regulating various gene expressions. Moreover, by regulating the gene expressions, H2 functions as an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic, and stimulates energy metabolism.”

 

Ohta, S. (2014). Molecular hydrogen as a preventive and therapeutic medical gas: Initiation, development and potential of hydrogen medicine. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 144(1), 1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2014.04.006

 

Role of insulin resistance and diet in acne

 

“There is increasing evidence in support of the interplay of growth hormone (GH), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling during puberty, which have a causal role in pathogenesis of acne by influencing adrenal and gonadal androgen metabolism. Occurrence of acne as part of various syndromes also provides evidence in favor of correlation between IGF-1 and acne.”

 

Kumari, R., & Thappa, D. (2013). Role of insulin resistance and diet in acne. Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology, 79(3), 291-299. doi: 10.4103/0378-6323.110753

 

Therapeutic effects of hydrogen saturated saline on rat diabetic model and insulin resistant model via reduction of oxidative stress

 

“Hydrogen saturated saline showed great efficiency in improving the insulin sensitivity and lowering blood glucose and lipids. Hydrogen saturated saline markedly attenuated the malondialdehyde level and elevated the levels of antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione.”

 

Wang, Q. J., Zha, X. J., Kang, Z. M., Xu, M. J., Huang, Q., & Zou, D. J. (2012). Therapeutic effects of hydrogen saturated saline on rat diabetic model and insulin resistant model via reduction of oxidative stress. Chinese Medical Journal, 125(9), 1633-1637. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22800834

 

Insulin resistance in severe acne vulgaris

 

“The main pathogenic factors of acne are high sebaceous gland secretion, follicular hyperproliferation, high androgen effects, propionibacterium acnes colonization and inflammation. These results suggest that insulin resistance may have a role in the pathogenesis of acne.”

 

Emiroğlu, N., Cengiz, F. P., & Kemeriz, F. (2015). Insulin resistance in severe acne vulgaris. Postepy Dermatoligii i Alergologii, 32(4), 281-285. doi: 10.5114/pdia.2015.53047

 

Supplementation of hydrogen-rich water improves lipid and glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance

 

“In 4 of 6 patients with impaired glucose tolerance, intake of hydrogen-rich water normalized the oral glucose tolerance test. In conclusion, these results suggest that supplementation with hydrogen-rich water may have a beneficial role in prevention of T2DM and insulin resistance.”

 

Kajiyama, S., Hasegawa, G., Asano, M., Hosoda, H., Fukui, M., Nakamura, N., . . . Yoshikawa, T. (2008). Supplementation of hydrogen-rich water improves lipid and glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Nutrition Research, 28(3), 137-143. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2008.01.008

 

Ultraviolet B-induced DNA damage in human epidermis is modified by the antioxidants ascorbic acid and D-alpha-tocopherol

 

“DNA damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is considered the main etiologic factor contributing to the development of skin cancer. Systemic or topical application of antioxidants has been suggested as a protective measure against UV-induced skin damage. After 3 mo of antioxidant administration, significantly less thymine dimers were induced by the UVB challenge, suggesting that antioxidant treatment protected against DNA damage.”

 

Placzek, M., Gaube, S., Kerkmann, U., Gilbertz, K., Herzinger, T., Haen, E., & Przybilla, B. (2005). Ultraviolet B-Induced DNA damage in human epidermis is modified by the antioxidants ascorbic acid and d-α-tocopherol. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 124(2), 304-307. doi: 10.1111/j.0022-202x.2004.23560.x

 

Hydrogen-rich saline protects against ultraviolet B radiation injury in rats

 

“Exposure of skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces photo-damage. Ultraviolet B (UVB) is the major component of UV radiation which induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and plays an important role in photo-damage. Hydrogen-rich saline had a protective effect by altering the levels of these markers and relieved morphological skin injury. Hydrogen-rich saline protected against UVB radiation injury, possibly by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress.”

 

Guo, Z. (2012). Hydrogen-rich saline protects against ultraviolet B radiation injury in rats. Journal of Biomedical Research, 26(5), 365-371. doi: 10.7555/jbr.26.20110037

 

Hydrogen-rich electrolyzed warm water represses wrinkle formation against UVA ray together with type-I collagen production and oxidative-stress diminishment in fibroblasts and cell-injury prevention in keratinocytes

 

“HW-bathing significantly improved wrinkle in four subjects on the back of neck on 90th day as compared to 0 day. Thus, HW may serve as daily skin care to repress UVA-induced skin damages by ROS-scavenging and promotion of type-I collagen synthesis in dermis.”

 

Kato, S., Saitoh, Y., Iwai, K., & Miwa, N. (2012). Hydrogen-rich electrolyzed warm water represses wrinkle formation against UVA ray together with type-I collagen production and oxidative-stress diminishment in fibroblasts and cell-injury prevention in keratinocytes. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 106, 24-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2011.09.006

 

​Histological study on the effect of electrolyzed reduced water-bathing on UVB radiation-induced skin injury in hairless mice

 

“Electrolyzed reduced water (ERW), functional water, has various beneficial effects via antioxidant mechanism in vivo and in vitro. Our data indicate that ERW-bathing significantly reduces UVB-induced skin damage through influencing pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance in hairless mice. This suggests that ERW-bathing has a positive effect on acute UVB-mediated skin disorders.”

 

Yoon, K. S., Huang, X. Z., Yoon, Y. S., Kim, S., Song, S. B., Chang, B. S., . . . Lee, K. J. (2011). Histological study on the effect of electrolyzed reduced water-bathing on UVB radiation-induced skin injury in hairless mice. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 34(11), 1671-1677. doi: 10.1248/bpb.34.1671

 

The balneotherapy effect of hydrogen reduced water on UVB-mediated skin injury in hairless mice

 

“The effect of HRW on cytokine network in the skin after UVB exposure revealed that HRW significantly decreased the level of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ. Finally, scanning electron microscopy data revealed low number of defected corneocytes and ultrastructural changes, suggesting that HRW bathing would protect UV-induced cell damage.”

 Ignacio, R. M., Yoon, Y., Sajo, M. E., Kim, C., Kim, D., Kim, S., & Lee, K. (2013). The balneotherapy effect of hydrogen reduced water on UVB-mediated skin injury in hairless mice. Molecular & Cellular Toxicology, 9(1), 15-21. doi: 10.1007/s13273-013-0003-6

 

Atomic hydrogen surrounded by water molecules, H(H2O)m, modulates basal and UV-induced gene expressions in human skin in vivo

 

“Interestingly, we observed that H(H2O)m application to human skin prevented UV-induced erythema and DNA damage.  These results demonstrated that local application of H(H2O)m may prevent UV-induced skin inflammation and can modulate intrinsic skin aging and photo-aging processes.”

 

Shin, M. H., Park, R., Nojima, H., Kim, H., Kim, Y. K., & Chung, J. H. (2013). Atomic hydrogen surrounded by water molecules, H(H2O)m, modulates basal and UV-induced gene expressions in human skin in vivo. PLOS ONE, 8(4), 1-10. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061696

 

Role of oxidative stress in various stages of psoriasis

 

“In conclusion, this study provides an evidence for increased reactive oxygen species production and decreased antioxidant defenses in psoriasis, reflected by increased lipid peroxidation and decreased total antioxidant status as well as decrease in superoxide dismutase activity and catalase activities.”

 

Kadam, D. P., Suryakar, A. N., Ankush, R. D., Kadam, C. Y., & Deshpande, K. H. (2010). Role of oxidative stress in various stages of psoriasis. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 25(4), 388-392. doi: 10.1007/s12291-010-0043-9

 

Improvement of psoriasis-associated arthritis and skin lesions by treatment with molecular hydrogen: A report of three cases

 

“Psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease, is caused by infiltrating lymphocytes and associated cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-17. IL-6 levels decreased during H2 treatment in Case 1 and 2. IL-17, whose concentration was high in Case 1, was reduced following H2 treatment, and TNFα also decreased in Case 1. The psoriatic skin lesions almost disappeared at the end of the treatment. H2 administration reduced inflammation associated with psoriasis in the three cases examined and it may therefore be considered as a treatment strategy for psoriasis-associated skin lesions and arthritis.”

 

Ishibashi, T., Ichikawa, M., Sato, B., Shibata, S., Hara, Y., Naritomi, Y., . . . Nagao, T. (2015). Improvement of psoriasis-associated arthritis and skin lesions by treatment with molecular hydrogen: A report of three cases. Molecular Medicine Reports, 12(2), 2757-2764. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2015.3707

 

Markers of systemic inflammation in psoriasis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

 

“The pooled analyses suggest modest but significantly elevated levels of the proinflammatory cytokines in the serum of patients with psoriasis with predominantly severe disease.”

 

Dowlatshahi, E., Voort, E. V., Arends, L., & Nijsten, T. (2013). Markers of systemic inflammation in psoriasis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Dermatology, 169(2), 266-282. doi: 10.1111/bjd.12355

 

Beneficial biological effects and the underlying mechanisms of molecular hydrogen - comprehensive review of 321 original articles

 

“A total of 321 original articles have been published from 2007 to June 2015. Most studies have been conducted in Japan, China, and the USA. The effects have been reported in essentially all organs covering 31 disease categories that can be subdivided into 166 disease models, human diseases, treatment-associated pathologies, and pathophysiological conditions of plants with a predominance of oxidative stress-mediated diseases and inflammatory diseases.”

 

Ichihara, M., Sobue, S., Ito, M., Ito, M., Hirayama, M., & Ohno, K. (2015). Beneficial biological effects and the underlying mechanisms of molecular hydrogen - comprehensive review of 321 original articles. Medical Gas Research, 5(12), 1-21. doi: 10.1186/s13618-015-0035-1

 

The drinking effect of hydrogen water on atopic dermatitis induced by dermatophagoides farinae allergen in NC/Nga mice

 

“To conclude, drinking HW suppressed the levels of inflammation-related mediators such as Th1, Th2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines which are number one players in the pathogenesis of human AD. In addition, this study provides a new insight of the relevance of certain cytokines in AD. HW represents a potentially alternative therapeutic and preventive treatment of AD.”

 

Ignacio, R. M. C., Kwak, H. –S., Yun, Y. –U., Sajo, M. E. J. V., Yoon, Y. –S., Kim, C., . . . Lee, K. –J. (2013). The drinking effect of hydrogen water on atopic dermatitis induced by dermatophagoides farinae allergen in NC/Nga mice. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013(538673), 1-5. doi: 10.1155/2013/538673

 

​Hydrogen (H2) treatment for acute erythematous skin diseases. A report of 4 patients with safety data and a non-controlled feasibility study with H2 concentration measurement on two volunteers

 

“We have treated 4 patients of acute erythematous skin diseases with fever and/or pain by H2 enriched intravenous fluid. Erythema of these 4 patients and associated symptoms improved significantly after the H2 treatment and did not recur. An improvement in acute erythematous skin diseases followed the administration of H2 enriched fluid without compromising the safety.”

 

Ono, H., Nishijima, Y., Adachi, N., Sakamoto, M., Kudo, Y., Nakazawa, J., . . . Nakao, A. (2012). Hydrogen (H2) treatment for acute erythymatous skin diseases. A report of 4 patients with safety data and a non-controlled feasibility study with H2 concentration measurement on two volunteers. Medical Gas Research, 2(14), 1-9. doi: 10.1186/2045-9912-2-14

 

​Hydrogen-rich medium protects human skin fibroblasts from high glucose or mannitol induced oxidative damage

 

“Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an important factor in the development of skin lesions in diabetes. A new antioxidant, hydrogen, can selectively neutralize hydroxyl radicals (()OH) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) in cell-free systems, whereas it seldom reacts with other ROS. Based on our results, hydrogen may have applications in the treatment of skin diseases caused by diabetes.”

 

Yu, P., Wang, Z., Sun, X., Chen, X., Zeng, S., Chen, L., & Li, S. (2011). Hydrogen-rich medium protects human skin fibroblasts from high glucose or mannitol induced oxidative damage. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 409(2), 350-355. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.05.024

 

Beneficial effects of hydrogen-rich saline on early burn-wound progression in rats

 

“Hydrogen can attenuate early wound progression following deep burn injury. The beneficial effect of hydrogen was mediated by attenuating oxidative stress, which inhibited apoptosis and inflammation, and the Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway may be involved in regulating the release of inflammatory cytokines.”

 

Guo, S. X., Jin, Y. Y., Fang, Q., You, C. G., Wang, X. G., Hu, X. L., & Han, C. (2015). Beneficial effects of hydrogen-rich saline on early burn-wound progression in rats. PLOS ONE, 10(4), 1-18. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124897

 

​Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates skin ischemia/reperfusion induced apoptosis via regulating Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and ASK-1/JNK pathway

 

“Hydrogen-rich saline ameliorated inflammatory infiltration and decreased cell apoptosis. The results indicate that hydrogen-rich saline could ameliorate ischemia/reperfusion injury and improve flap survival rate by inhibiting the apoptosis factor and, at the same time, promoting the expression of anti-apoptosis factor.”

 

Liu, Y. Q., Liu, Y. F., Ma, X. M., Xiao, Y. D., Wang, Y. B., Zang, M. Z., . . . Zhang, X. (2015). Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates skin ischemia/reperfusion induced apoptosis via regulating Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and ASK-1/JNK pathway. Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, 68(7), 147-156. doi: 10.1016/j.bjps.2015.03.001

 

 

Eumelanin-driven production of molecular hydrogen: A novel element of skin defense?

 

“It seems that melanin, natural pigment of skin and hair, might produce endogenous hydrogen. The protective role of skin melanin (eumelanin) could be due to its capacity for molecular hydrogen production. An effective pooling of dihydrogen by eumelanin should be considered as a novel element of skin defense system against oxidative stress-related disorders.”

 

Ostojic, S. M. (2015). Eumelanin-driven production of molecular hydrogen: A novel element of skin defense? Medical Hypotheses, 85(2), 237-238. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2015.04.014

 

​Hydrogen-rich saline resuscitation alleviates inflammation induced by severe burn with delayed resuscitation

 

“Severe burns “with delayed resuscitation are associated with high morbidity which is attributed to ischemia-reperfusion injury. Our data imply that hydrogen-rich saline significantly improves the inflammatory reaction in rats with severe burns with delayed resuscitation, possibly by inhibiting activation of NF-κB.”

 

Wang, X., Yu, P., Y., Liu, X., Jiang, J., Liu, D., & Xue, G. (2015). Hydrogen-rich saline resuscitation alleviates inflammation induced by severe burn with delayed resuscitation. Burns, 41(2), 379-385. doi: 10.1016/j.burns.2014.07.012

 

Hydrogen water intake via tube-feeding for patients with pressure ulcer and its reconstructive effects on normal human skin cells in vitro

 

“HW intake via TF was demonstrated, for severely hospitalized elderly patients with PU, to execute wound size reduction and early recovery, which potently ensue from either type-I collagen construction in dermal fibroblasts or the promoted mitochondrial reducing ability and ROS repression in epidermal keratinocytes as shown by immunostain or NBT and WST-1 assays, respectively.”

 

Li, Q., Kato, S., Matsuoka, D., Tanaka, H., & Miwa, N. (2013). Hydrogen water intake via tube-feeding for patients with pressure ulcer and its reconstructive effects on normal human skin cells in vitro. Medical Gas Research, 3(20), 1-16. doi: 10.1186/2045-9912-3-20

 

Hydrogen protects rats from dermatitis caused by local radiation

 

“Hydrogen significantly reduced the severity of dermatitis, accelerated tissue recovery, and reduced the extent of radiation-induced weight loss in rats after a single dose of 15 or 20 Gy but not 25 Gy of radiation. Hydrogen was also protective from cumulative doses of 30 Gy delivered in three fractions, respectively. Hydrogen also protect HaCaT cells from radiation-induced injury, it could significantly inhibit ionizing injury.”

 

Mei, K., Zhao, S., Qian, L., Li, B., Ni, J., & Cai, J. (2013). Hydrogen protects rats from dermatitis caused by local radiation. Journal of Dermatological Treatment, 25(2), 182-188. doi: 10.3109/09546634.2012.762639

Protective effect of inhalation of hydrogen gas on radiation-induced dermatitis and skin injury in rats

 

“The effect of inhalation of hydrogen-containing gas (1.3% hydrogen + 20.8% oxygen + 77.9% nitrogen) (HCG) on radiation-induced dermatitis and on the healing of healing-impaired skin wounds in rats was examined using a rat model of radiation-induced skin injury.  X-irradiation significantly increased the time required for wound healing, but the inhalation of HCG prior to the irradiation significantly decreased the delay in wound healing compared with the control and post-inhalation of HCG groups. Therefore, radiation-induced skin injury can potentially be alleviated by the pre-inhalation of HCG.”

 

Watanabe, S., Fujita, M., Ishihara, M., Tachibana, S., Yamamoto, Y., Kaji, T., . . . Kanatani, Y. (2014). Protective effect of inhalation of hydrogen gas on radiation-induced dermatitis and skin injury in rats. Journal of Radiation Research, 55(6), 1107-1113. doi: 10.1093/jrr/rru067

Hydrogen-rich water intake accelerates oral palatal wound healing via activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathways in a rat model

 

“As molecular hydrogen upregulated the Nrf2 pathway, systemic oxidative stresses were decreased by the activation of antioxidant activity. Furthermore, hydrogen-rich water intake reduced proinflammatory cytokine levels and promoted the expression of healing-associated factors in rat palatal tissue. The results of this study support the hypothesis that oral administration of hydrogen-rich water benefits the wound healing process by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.”

 

Tamaki, N., Orihuela-Campos, R. C., Fukui, M., & Ito, H. (2016). Hydrogen-rich water intake accelerates oral palatal wound healing via activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant defense pathways in a rat model. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2016(6579040), 1-13. doi: 10.1155/2016/5679040

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