Weight Management and Metabolism Support

Research & Studies

 Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome

“Increased oxidative stress in accumulated fat is an early instigator of metabolic syndrome and that the redox state in adipose tissue is a potentially useful therapeutic target for obesity-associated metabolic syndrome.”

Furukawa, S., Fujita, T. Shimabukuro, M., Iwaki, M., Yamada, Y., Nakajima, Y., et al. (2004). Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 114(12), 1752-1761. doi: 10.1172/jci21625

Effectiveness of hydrogen rich water on antioxidant status of subjects with potential metabolic syndrome-an open label pilot study

 

“The consumption of hydrogen rich water for 8 weeks resulted in a 39% increase (p<0.05) in antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and a 43% decrease (p<0.05) in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in urine. Further, subjects demonstrated an 8% increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and a 13% decrease in total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol from baseline to week 4. In conclusion, drinking hydrogen rich water represents a potentially novel therapeutic and preventive strategy for metabolic syndrome.” 

 

Nakao, A., Toyoda, Y., Sharma, P., Evans, M., & Guthrie, N. (2010). Effectiveness of hydrogen rich water on antioxidant status of subjects with potential metabolic syndrome—An open label pilot study. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, 46(2), 140-149. doi: 10.3164/jcbn.09-100

 

Hydrogen-rich water decreases serum LDL-cholesterol levels and improves HDL function in patients with potential metabolic syndrome

 

“We found consumption of H2-rich water resulted in an increase in antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase and a decrease in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in whole serum and LDL. In conclusion, supplementation with H2-rich water seems to decrease serum LDL-C and apoB levels, improve dyslipidemia-injured HDL functions, and reduce oxidative stress, and it may have a beneficial role in prevention of potential metabolic syndrome.”

 

Song, G., Li, M., Sang, H., Zhang, L., Li, X., Yao, S., . . . Qin, S. (2013). Hydrogen-rich water decreases serum LDL-cholesterol levels and improves HDL function in patients with potential metabolic syndrome. The Journal of LipidResearch, 54(7), 1884-1893. doi: 10.1194/jlr.m036640

 

Oxidative stress and diabetic complications

 

“Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development of diabetes complications, both microvascular and cardiovascular. The experimental data discussed in this review demonstrate that the metabolic abnormalities of diabetes cause mitochondrial superoxide overproduction.”

 

Giacco, F., & Brownlee, M. (2010). Oxidative stress and diabetic complications. Circulation Research, 107(9), 1058-1070. doi: 10.1161/circresaha.110.223545

Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: A review of clinical and experimental studies

“H2 is emerging as a novel and safe therapeutic antioxidant. It has selective antioxidant properties, giving it anti-inflammatory properties.”

Hong, Y., Chen, S., & Zhang, J. (2010). Hydrogen as a selective antioxidant: A review of clinical and experimental studies. Journal of International Medical Research, 38(6), 1893-1903. doi: 10.1177/147323001003800602

 

​Supplementation of hydrogen-rich water improves lipid and glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance

“Supplementation with molecular hydrogen-rich water may have a beneficial role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance by helping to stabilize blood sugar, which is a critical aspect of long-term weight loss.”

 

Kajiyama, S., Hasegawa, G., Asano, M., Hosoda, H., Fukui, M., Nakamura, N., . . . Yoshikawa, T. (2008). Supplementation of hydrogen-rich water improves lipid and glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. Nutrition Research, 28(3), 137-143. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2008.01.008 

 

Molecular hydrogen stimulates the gene expression of transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α to enhance fatty acid metabolism

“In wild-type mice fed the fatty diet, H2-water improved the level of plasma triglycerides and extended their average of lifespan. H2 induces expression of thePGC-1α gene, followed by stimulation of the PPARα pathway that regulates FGF21, and the fatty acid and steroid metabolism.”

 

Kamimura, N. Ichimaya, H. Iuchi, K. & Ohta, S. (2016). Molecular hydrogen stimulates the gene expression of transcriptional coactivator PGC-1a to enhance fatty acid metabolism. Npj Aging and Mechanisms of Disease, 2(16008), 1-8. doi: 10.1038/npjamd.2016.8

Molecular hydrogen improves obesity and diabetes by inducing hepatic FGF21 and stimulating energy metabolism in db/db mice

 

“Long-term drinking H(2)-water significantly controlled fat and body weights, despite no increase in consumption of diet and water. The present results suggest the potential benefit of H(2) in improving obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.”

 

Kamimura, N., Nishimaki, K., Ohsawa, I., & Ohta, S. (2011). Molecular hydrogen improves obesity and diabetes by inducing hepatic FGF21 and stimulating energy metabolism in db/db mice. Obesity, 19(7), 1396-1403. doi: 10.1038/oby.2011.6

 

Therapeutic effects of hydrogen saturated saline on rat diabetic model and insulin resistant model via reduction of oxidative stress

 

“Hydrogen saturated saline may improve the insulin resistance and alleviate the symptoms of diabetes mellitus by reducing the oxidative stress and enhancing the anti-oxidant system.”

 

Wang, Q. J., Zha, X. J., Kang, Z. M., Xu, M. J., Huang, Q., & Zou, D. J. (2012). Therapeutic effects of hydrogen saturated saline on rat diabetic model and insulin resistant model via reduction of oxidative stress. Chinese Medical Journal, 125(9), 1633-1637. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22800834/ 

 

​Molecular hydrogen attenuates fatty acid uptake and lipid accumulation through downregulating CD36 expression in HepG2 cells

 

“Pretreatment with hydrogen reduced fatty acid uptake and lipid accumulation after palmitate overload in HepG2 cells, which was associated with inhibition of JNK activation. Hydrogen treatment did not alter CD36 mRNA expression but reduced CD36 protein expression.

 

Iio, A., Ito, M., Itoh, T., Terazawa, R., Fujita, Y., Nozawa, Y., . . . Ito, M. (2013). Molecular hydrogen attenuates fatty acid uptake and lipid accumulation through downregulating CD36 expression in HepG2 cells. Medical Gas Research, 3(6), 1-7. doi: 10.1186/2045-9912-3-6

 

​Hydrogen-rich water inhibits glucose and α,β -dicarbonyl compound-induced reactive oxygen species production in the SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rat kidney

 

“These results indicate that HRW inhibits the production of α,β-dicarbonyl compounds and ROS in the kidneys of SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rats. Therefore, it has therapeutic potential for renal dysfunction in patient with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.”

 

Katakura, M., Hashimoto, M., Tanabe, Y., & Shido, O. (2012). Hydrogen-rich water inhibits glucose and α,β -dicarbonyl compound-induced reactive oxygen species production in the SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rat kidney. Medical Gas Research, 2(18), 1-7. doi: 10.1186/2045-9912-2-18

 

Oxidative stress in obesity: A critical component in human diseases

 

“Based on the complex interplay between adipokines, obesity is also characterized by chronic low grade inflammation with permanently increased oxidative stress (OS). Over-expression of oxidative stress damages cellular structures together with under-production of anti-oxidant mechanisms, leading to the development of obesity-related complications. “

 

Marseglia, L., Manti, S., D’Angelo, G., Nicotera, A., Parisi, E., Rosa, G. D., . . . Arrigo, T. (2014). Oxidative stress in obesity: A critical component in human diseases. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 16(1), 378-400. doi: 10.3390/ijms16010378

 

Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals

 

“Hydrogen selectively reduces the hydroxyl radical, the most toxic free radical, and effectively protects cells. It does not react with free radicals that have physiological benefits, making it an incredibly effective therapy to neutralize acute oxidative stress.”

 

Ohsawa, I., Ishikawa, M., Takahashi, K., Watanabe, M., Nishimaki, K., Yamagata, K., . . . Ohta, S. (2007). Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Nature Medicine, 13(6), 688-694. doi: 10.1038/nm1577

 

Oxidative stress and the use of antioxidants in diabetes: Linking basic science to clinical practice

 

“Despite overwhelming evidence on the damaging consequences of oxidative stress and its role in experimental diabetes, large scale clinical trials with classic antioxidants failed to demonstrate any benefit for diabetic patients. Therefore, new strategies with classic as well as new antioxidants should be implemented in the treatment of diabetes.”

 

Johansen, J. S., Harris, A. K., Rychly, D. J., & Ergui, A. (2005). Oxidative stress and the use of antioxidants in diabetes: Linking basic science to clinical practice. BioMed Central Cardiovascular Diabetology, 4(5), 1-11. doi: 10.1186/1475-2840-4-5

 

A review of hydrogen as a new medical therapy

 

“In the past few years many initial and subsequent clinical studies have demonstrated that hydrogen can act as an important physiological regulatory factor to cells and organs on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and other protective effects. So far several delivery methods applied in these studies have proved to be available and convenient, including inhalation, drinking hydrogen-dissolved water and injection with hydrogen-saturated saline.”

 

Zhang, J., Liu, C., Zhou, L., Qu, K., Wang, R., Tai, M., . . . Wang, Z. (2012). A Review of hydrogen as a new medical therapy. Hepatogastroenterology, 59(116), 1026-1032. doi: 10.5754/hge11883

 

 

​Anti type 2 diabetic effect and anti-oxidation effect in active hydrogen water administration KK-Ay mice

 

“Active hydrogen water is capable of anti-oxidation and it also has a controlling effect on the blood glucose level in type 2 diabetes.”

 

Gu, Y., Oonishi, K., Fujii, T., Itokawa, Y., Masubuchi, T., Kurono, Y., . . . Ishida, T. (2006). Anti type 2 diabetic effect and anti-oxidation effect in active hydrogen water administration KK-Ay mice. Medicine and Biology, 150(11), 384-392. Retrieved from http://www.suzuka-u.ac.jp/information/bulletin/pdf/07-02-gu2.pdf ​

 

​Anti-diabetes effect of water containing hydrogen molecule and Pt nanoparticles

 

“In the groups of H2, Pt NPs and their combined use groups, blood sugar levels and impaired sugar tolerance of type 2 diabetes model mouse (KK-Ay) were significantly improved, suggesting that H2, Pt NPs and H are redox regulation factors in animal cells.”

 

Shirahata, S., Hamasaki, T., Haramaki, K., Nakamura, T., Abe, M., Yan, H., . . . Teruya, K. (2011). Anti-diabetes effect of water containing hydrogen molecule and Pt nanoparticles. BioMed Central Proceedings, 5(8), 1-3. doi: 10.1186/1753-6561-5-s8-p18

 

Molecular hydrogen as an emerging therapeutic medical gas for neurodegenerative and other diseases

 

“Molecular hydrogen has been shown to exhibit therapeutic benefits regarding diabetes type 2 and metabolic syndrome, among others.”

 

Ohno, K., Ito, M., Ichihara, M., & Ito, M. (2012). Molecular hydrogen as an emerging therapeutic medical gas for neurodegenerative and other diseases. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2012(353152), 1-11. doi: 10.1155/2012/353152

Evaluation of oxidative stress and inflammation in obese adults with metabolic syndrome

 

“High levels of free radicals together with low antioxidant capacity detected in obese adults indicate elevated oxidative stress, which is--together with systemic inflammation--further potentiated in the case of obese patients with metabolic syndrome. This imbalance in oxidative/antioxidative status and subclinical inflammatory state leads to higher risk of atherosclerotic and diabetic complications.”

 

Skalicky, J., Muzakova, V., Kandar, R., Meloun, M., Rousar, T., & Palicka, V. (2008). Evaluation of oxidative stress and inflammation in obese adults with metabolic syndrome. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 46(4), 499-505. doi: 10.1515/cclm.2008.096

 

​Recent progress toward hydrogen medicine: Potential of molecular hydrogen for preventive and therapeutic applications

 

“H2 has a number of advantages as a potential antioxidant: H2 rapidly diffuses into tissues and cells, and it is mild enough neither to disturb metabolic redox reactions nor to affect reactive oxygen species (ROS) that function in cell signaling, thereby, there should be little adverse effects of consuming H2. H2 shows not only effects against oxidative stress, but also various anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. Moreover, H2 passes through the blood brain barrier, although most antioxidant compounds cannot; this is also an advantage of H2.”

 

Ohta, S. (2011). Recent progress toward hydrogen medicine: Potential of molecular hydrogen for preventative and therapeutic applications. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 17(22), 2241-2252. doi: 10.2174/138161211797052664 

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